Top Young Historians: 82 – Matthew Connelly

Top Young Historians

Matthew Connelly, 39

Basic Facts

Teaching Position: Associate Professor of History, Columbia University.
Director, Columbia University and London School of Economics MA Program in International and World History
Area of Research: International and Global history.
Education: Ph.D., Department of History, Yale University, 1997
Major Publications: Connelly is the author of A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (OUP, 2002) which won the 2002 American Historical Association George Louis Beer Prize and the Paul Birdsall Prize in European military and strategic history, 2003 Bernath Prize of the Society for Matthew  Connelly JPG Historians of American Foreign Relations, and was the co-winner of the 2003 Akira Iriye International History Book Award. His next book, Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population,” will be published by Harvard University Press in 2008.
Connelly is also the author of numerous scholarly journal articles, book chapters and reviews that have appeared in Comparative Studies in Society and History, The International Journal of Middle East Studies, The American Historical Review, The Review fran çaise d’histoire d’ Outre-mer, and Past & Present. They include among others: “The Cold War and the Longue Durée: Global Migration, Public Health, and Population Control,” Cambridge History of the Cold War, ed. Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad (New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.); “AHR Conversation: On Transnational History,” The American Historical Review 111 (December 2006): 1440-1464; “Seeing Beyond the State: The Population Control Movement and the Problem of Sovereignty,” Past & Present 193 (December 2006); “Population Control in India: Prologue to the Emergency Period,” Population and Development Review 32 (November 2006); “To Inherit the Earth: Imagining World Population, from the Yellow Peril to the Population Bomb,” Journal of Global History 1 (November 2006); “Population Control is History: New Perspectives on the International Campaign to Limit Population Growth,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 45 (Winter 2003): 122-147, and “Rethinking the Cold War and Decolonization: The Grand Strategy of the Algerian War for Independence,” The International Journal of Middle East Studies 33 (May 2001): 221-245.
Awards: Connelly is the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships including among others:
Sovern Fellowship, The American Academy in Rome, 2007;
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Fellowship, 2006-2007;
Akira Iriye International History Book Award, Foundation for Pacific Quest, 2004;
Edgar S. Furniss Book Award in National and International Security, The Mershon Center, Ohio State University, 2004;
Guggenheim Fellowship, Guggenheim Foundation, 2003-2004;
Stuart L. Bernath Book Prize, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, 2003;
George Louis Beer Book Prize for European international history since 1895, American Historical Association, 2003;
Paul Birdsall Book Prize for European military and strategic history since 1870, American Historical Association, 2003;
Institute for the Humanities Faculty Fellowship, University of Michigan, 2000-2001;
Ludolph Junior Faculty Development Award, University of Michigan, 1999, 2001;
Rackham Summer Grant and Fellowship, University of Michigan, 1998, 2001;
Honorable Mention for Bernath Article Prize, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, 2001;
Summer Stipend and Grant, Environmental Change and Security Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2000;
Arthur and Mary Wright Prize, Yale University, 1998;
Whiting Fellowship in the Humanities, Yale University, 1996-1997;
Research Grant, MacArthur Foundation and International Security Studies (ISS), Yale University, 1996.
Additional Info:
Connelly has also published commentary on international affairs in The Atlantic Monthly and The National Interest. He is formerly Assistant Professor, Department of History and Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, 1997-2001.

Personal Anecdote

Once, frustrated with a grant application, I turned to my roommate to complain that I could not possibly narrate in a thousand words how my “intellectual development” led me to my dissertation topic. I was living in France, in genteel poverty, convinced that I had just discovered that the Fifth Republic was the unintended consequence of a long-secret diplomatic crisis. But there had been a lot of false starts, digressions, and dead ends along the way. My friend sagely counseled that I should not be so literal-minded. After all, the night was young, and Paris beckoned. The readers did not expect introspection, even if their question appeared to demand it. The grant essay, he explained, was a “necessary fiction.”

I’ve described my work many times since then, and I’ve often recalled that phrase. As historians, we are not supposed to traffic in fiction. And yet we can scarcely survive if our stories do not seem compelling, especially the stories we tell about ourselves. The topics we take up are often a matter of happenstance – in my case, the fact that my first graduate research seminar was on the end of empires, and I had just seen a film called The Battle of Algiers. But over the years, after countless grant applications, I learned to call my decision to study national liberation movements in North Africa “strategic.” And rather than admit that I was as surprised as anyone at the way they foreshadowed contemporary “clashes of civilizations,” I decided that, all along, I had been exploring the origins of the post-Cold War era.

Of course, many explorers discover things by accident, whether or not they admit it. When they return people want them to provide maps, and not send them on the same misadventures. But I wonder whether, as professors, we lead our students astray when we present our life’s work as a series of “projects,” as if our lives depended on them. Is it not our life stories that often lead us to a particular subject, and personal idiosyncrasies that make us feel passionate about it? Why then have we come to expect that even those applying to start a graduate program in history should already have a “project” of their own?

In my own case, I was almost finished with my book about the Algerian War for Independence before I realized why, all along, I had an abiding affinity for the rebels. I was interviewing one of them when he started to tell me about how he and his compatriots had learned from the history of Ireland’s struggle against Britain. I recalled how, like many children of Irish immigrants, I had grown up listening to rebel songs and developed a romantic kind of nationalism, one that was uncomplicated by a deeper knowledge of the country and its history. If a student now came to me with a similar realization, I would be worried for them. But I have no doubt that my own inchoate and unacknowledged feelings helped me remain committed to pursuing my work wherever it led me – to Tunis, to Cairo, to Algiers – and making my readers care about it as much as I did.

These realizations seem self-evident in retrospect. But writing too many “necessary fictions” can make us forget our own life stories. When I set out to research my second book, a history of the population control movement, I was sure it was because it would help show how and why people divide the world between “us” and “them.” By the time I was done with it, I could argue that international and nongovernmental organizations had taken up the unfinished work of empires and created new forms of unaccountable power – in this case, controlling populations rather than territory. But when I presented this conclusion to audiences people would ask me, unbelieving, why I was so passionate about population control. As the youngest of eight children, part of a generation Paul Ehrlich called The Population Bomb, it was obvious why I might feel a personal stake in this history, even if it took me years to realize it.

Perhaps there is already too much navel-gazing among the professoriate. Self-important professors sometimes forget that, if we have an audience beyond academia, it is not for our life stories – everybody’s got one – it is because we claim to have something new and important to say. But for most of us, that is only because we have spent our lives thinking about it, driven in ways even we do not always understand. That is why those who would think to follow us really had better pursue their own passions.

Quotes

By Matthew Connelly

  • Some scientists argue that we should consider humanity like any other species, because natural selection and “selfish genes” provide the basis for human behavior, whether sexuality, or aggression, or altruism. History Fatal Misconception JPG will eventually be revealed as nothing but a specialized branch of biology, explaining particular wars or sexual revolutions but not war or sexism as such. They even suggest that they might be able to apply their insights to mold human behavior for the better. In fact, such arguments only provide further proof that “sociobiologists” have it backwards: our biology is becoming a branch of history, subject to human will and human error. Whether we understand this history or choose to ignore it, especially eugenics and other attempts to improve human populations, will help determine how this happens. If humanity tries to remake itself once again, repeating the errors of the past will prove all the more unforgivable.
    (Reprinted electronically by permission of the publisher from the forthcoming title FATAL MISCONCEPTION: THE STRUGGLE TO CONTROL WORLD POPULATION by Matthew Connelly, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Copyright © 2008 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College.) Matthew Connelly in “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • About Matthew Connelly

  • This is history written from the heart. The story it tells is of misplaced benevolence at best and biological totalitarianism at worst. Deeply researched and elegantly written, it is a disturbing, angry, combative, and important book, one which raises issues we ignore at our peril. — Jay Winter, Yale University reviewing “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • Matthew Connelly bravely and eloquently explores the dark underside of world population policies. It is a clarion call to respect individuals’ freedom to make their own reproductive choices. — William Easterly, author of “The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good” reviewing “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • One of the most gifted historians of his generation has given us an exciting and thought-provoking new way to understand the making of the ever-globalizing world of today. — Akira Iriye, author of “Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World” reviewing “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • Connelly raises the most profound political, social, and moral questions. His history reveals that the difference between population control and birth control is indeed that between coercion and choice. — Mahmood Mamdani, author of “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror” reviewing “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • This is a superb global history. By focusing on NGOs and transnational networks, the United Nations and nation states, Connelly has given us an important new way of seeing world politics. — Emily Rosenberg, University of California, Irvine reviewing “Fatal Misconception The Struggle to Control World Population”
  • “A brilliant volume of analysis, careful research, elegant writing, and the sensitive inclusion of multiple source materials ranging from demographic statistics to propaganda films.” — International Journal of African Historical Studies review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “A Diplomatic Revolution offers a fascinating argument based on a variety of multilingual and multi-archival sources that reflect the national discourse of the nations involved.” — African Studies Review review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “An ambitious book that succeeds admirably in its argument…. In scope, and persuasiveness, A Diplomatic Revolution is unlikely to be surpassed as the best book about the Algerian revolution for many years to come.” — Journal of Cold War Studies review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “A. J.P. Taylor observed that historians ‘talk so much about profound forces in order to avoid doing the detailed A  Diplomatic Revolution JPGwork’ (p 141) Connelly is not one of them. His multiarchival research is impressive, especially his pioneering work in the recently available Algerian records. Above all, he has taken an innovative analytical approach, an engaging alternative to traditional diplomatic historiography.” — The International History Review review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “In concentrating on the international dimension, Connelly weaves into his story the changing roles of the United States, Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia; the ebb and flow of FLN relations with the soviet bloc; and much more.” — Foreign Affairs review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “Connelly’s book is not a comprehensive history of the Algerian war, but a meticulous reconstruction of the global environment in which it occurred. By recasting the Algerian revolution as a contest between competeing ‘transnational systems’ he has shined a welcome new light on a struggle that has long been treated, for practical purposes, as an episode in the history of Fance and its empire, without suficient reference to the rest of the world, whose interests were most decidedly in play.” — Strategic Insights review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • “This extensively researched study will provide extremely valuable information to scholars of decolonization, and represents a major contribution to the history of what one of the belligerent parties, France, only officially recognized as a war in October 1999.” — Journal of Military History review of “A Diplomatic Revolution Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era”
  • Posted on Sunday, January 27, 2008 at 10:50 PM

    History Buzz: January 2008

    History Buzz

    By Bonnie K. Goodman

    Ms. Goodman is the Editor/Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University.

    January 28, 2008

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:
    • GARRY WILLS: Two Presidents Are Worse Than One – NYT, 1-26-08
    • CAROLINE KENNEDY: A President Like My Father – NYT, 1-27-08
    • Gil Troy: Clinton must not let her husband be seen as leader – Newsday, 1-27-08
    • Sean Wilentz: Obama’s misuse of history Despite the candidate’s claims, Lincoln and Kennedy were seasoned politicians before they became president – LAT, 1-26-08
    BIGGEST STORIES: Black History Month
    HNN STATS THIS WEEK:
    THIS WEEK IN HISTORY: This Week in History:

    • New Feature: On This Day in History…
    • 28/01/1547 – 9-year-old Edward VI succeeds Henry VIII as king of England
    • 28/01/1581 – James VI signs 2nd Confession of Faith in Scotland
    • 28/01/1858 – John Brown organized raid on Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
    • 28/01/1865 – Pres Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners
    • 28/01/1878 – Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
    • 28/01/1915 – 1st US ship lost in WW I, William P Frye (carrying wheat to UK)
    • 28/01/1915 – US Pres Wilson refuses to prohibit immigration of illiterates
    • 28/01/1916 – 1st Jewish Supreme Court justice, Louis Brandeis, appointed by Wilson
    • 29/01/1834 – Pres Jackson orders 1st use of US troops to suppress a labor dispute
    • 29/01/1850 – Henry Clay introduces a comprise bill on slavery to US Senate
    • 29/01/1861 – Kansas becomes 34th state
    • 29/01/1863 – Battle at Bear River, Washington: US army vs indians
    • 29/01/1864 – Battle of Moorefield, WV (Rosser’s Raid)
    • 29/01/1879 – Custer Battlefield National Monument, Mont established
    • 29/01/1916 – 1st bombings of Paris by German Zeppelins takes place
    • 29/01/1919 – Secretary of state proclaims 18th amendment (prohibition)
    • 29/01/1944 – 285 German bombers attack London
    • 29/01/1980 – 6 Iranian held US hostages escape with help of Canadians
    • 29/01/1984 – Pres Reagan formally announces he will seek a 2nd term
    • 30/01/1349 – Jews of Freilsburg Germany are massacred
    • 30/01/1487 – Bell chimes invented
    • 30/01/1647 – King Charles I handed over to English parliament
    • 30/01/1781 – Articles of Confederation ratified by 13th state, Maryland
    • 30/01/1797 – Congress refuses to accept 1st petitions from American blacks
    • 30/01/1798 – Rep Matthew Lyon (Vt) spits in face of Rep Roger Griswold (Ct) in US House of Representatives, after an argument
    • 30/01/1800 – US population: 5,308,483; Black population 1,002,037 (18.9%)
    • 30/01/1815 – Burned Library of Congress reestablished with Jefferson’s 6500 vols
    • 30/01/1835 – Richard Lawrence misfires at Pres Andrew Jackson in Washington DC
    • 30/01/1913 – House of Lords rejects Irish Home Rule Bill
    • 30/01/1933 – Adolph Hitler named German Chancellor, forms govt with Von Papen
    • 30/01/1939 – Hitler calls for extermination of European Jews
    • 30/01/1956 – Martin Luther King Jr’s home bombed
    • 30/01/1957 – US Congress accepts “Eisenhower-doctrine”
    • 30/01/1961 – JFK asks for an Alliance for Progress and Peace Corp
    • 30/01/1972 – Bloody Sunday: Brit soldiers shoot on catholics in Londonderry, 13 die
    • 30/01/1973 – Jury finds Watergate defendants Liddy and McCord guilty on all counts
    • 30/01/1976 – George Bush becomes 11th director of CIA (until 1977)
    • 30/01/1989 – 5 pharoah sculptures from 1470 BC found at temple of Luxor
    • 31/01/1863 – 1st black Civil War regiment, SC Volunteers, mustered into US army
    • 31/01/1865 – Congress passes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (121-24)
    • 31/01/1865 – Gen Robert E Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies
    • 31/01/1871 – Millions of birds fly over western SF, darkens sky
    • 31/01/1950 – Pres Truman OKs building of hydrogen bomb
    • 31/01/1968 – Viet Cong’s Tet offensive begins
    • 01/02/1587 – English queen Elizabeth I signs Mary Stuarts death sentence
    • 01/02/1790 – Supreme Court convenes for 1st time (NYC)
    • 01/02/1810 – US Population: 7,239,881, Black population: 1,377,808 (19%)
    • 01/02/1860 – 1st rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of NYC
    • 01/02/1861 – Texas becomes 7th state to secede
    • 01/02/1862 – Julia Howe publishes “Battle Hymn of Republic”
    • 01/02/1865 – 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)
    • 01/02/1865 – General Sherman’s march through South Carolina begins
    • 01/02/1871 – Jefferson Long of Georgia is 1st black to make an official speech in House of Reps (opposing leniency to former Confederates)
    • 01/02/1887 – Harvey Wilcox of Ks subdivides 120 acres he owned in Southern Calif and starts selling it off as a real estate development (Hollywood)
    • 01/02/1892 – Mrs William Astor invites 400 guests to a grand ball at her mansion thus beginning use of “400” to describe socially elite
    • 01/02/1893 – Thomas Edison complete’s worlds 1st movie studio (West Orange NJ)
    • 01/02/1951 – 1st telecast of atomic explosion
    • 01/02/1953 – “General Electric Theater” premieres on CBS TV; Reagan later hosts
    • 01/02/1953 – “You Are There” with Walter Cronkite premieres on CBS television
    • 01/02/1960 – 4 students stage 1st civil rights sit-in, at Greensboro NC Woolworth
    • 01/02/1965 – Martin Luther King Jr and 700 demonstrators arrested in Selma Ala
    • 01/02/1965 – Peter Jennings, 26, becomes anchor of ABC’s nightly news
    • 01/02/1968 – Former VP Richard Nixon announces candidacy for president
    • 01/02/1968 – Famous photo: Saigon police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan executes a Viet Cong officer with a pistol shot to head
    • 01/02/1978 – Harriet Tubman is 1st black woman honored on a US postage stamp
    • 01/02/1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 15 yrs in exile
    • 02/02/1536 – Pedro de Mendoza finds Argentine city of Buenos Aires
    • 02/02/1550 – English Edward Seymour duke of Somerset, freed
    • 02/02/1843 – US and British settlers in Oregon Country choose govt committee
    • 02/02/1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican War; US acquires Texas California, New Mexico and Arizona for $15 million
    • 02/02/1848 – 1st ship load of Chinese arrive in SF
    • 02/02/1863 – Samuel Clemens becomes Mark Twain for 1st time
    • 02/02/1876 – Baseball’s National League forms with teams in Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, New York, Philadelphia, St Louis
    • 02/02/1913 – NYC’s Grand Central Terminal opens
    • 02/02/1942 – LA Times urges security measures against Japanese-Americans
    • 02/02/1948 – President Truman urges congress to adopt a civil rights program
    • 02/02/1954 – Pres Eisenhower reports detonation of 1st H-bomb (done in 1952)
    • 02/02/1955 – 1st presidential news conference on network TV-Eisenhower on ABC
    • 03/02/1690 – 1st paper money in America issued (colony of Mass)
    • 03/02/1740 – Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, invites Jews to return to Sicily
    • 03/02/1783 – Spain recognizes US independence
    • 03/02/1836 – Whig Party holds its 1st national convention (Albany NY)
    • 03/02/1855 – Wisconsin Supreme Ct declares US Fugitive Slave Law unconstitutional
    • 03/02/1860 – Thomas Clemson takes office as 1st US superintendent of agriculture
    • 03/02/1864 – Sherman’s march through Mississippi
    • 03/02/1865 – Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln and Stephens reach an impasse
    • 03/02/1870 – 15th Amendment (Black suffrage) passed
    • 03/02/1908 – Supreme Court rules a union boycott violates Sherman Antitrust Act
    • 03/02/1916 – Canada’s original Parliament buildings, in Ottawa, burns down
    • 03/02/1917 – US liner Housatonic sunk by German sub and diplomatic relations severed
    • 03/02/1919 – League of Nations 1st meeting (Paris)
    • 03/02/1930 – William Howard Taft, resigns as chief justice for health reasons
    • 03/02/1947 – 1st black reporter in Congressional press gallery (Percival Prattis)
    • 03/02/1962 – Pres Kennedy bans all trade with Cuba except for food and drugs
    • 03/02/1994 – Pres Bill Clinton lifts US trade embargo against Vietnam
    • 04/02/1586 – Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, becomes governor of Neth
    • 04/02/1787 – Shays’ Rebellion (of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers) fails
    • 04/02/1789 – 1st electoral college chooses Washington and Adams as Pres and VP
    • 04/02/1822 – Free American Blacks settle Liberia, West Africa
    • 04/02/1847 – 1st US telegraph co established in Maryland
    • 04/02/1854 – Alvan Bovay proposes name “Republican Party,” Ripon, Wisc
    • 04/02/1855 – Soldiers shoot Jewish families in Coro, Venezuela
    • 04/02/1861 – Confederate constitutional convention meets for 1st time, Montgomery Ala, Ga, Fla, La, Miss and SC elect Jefferson Davis pres of Confederacy
    • 04/02/1864 – 24th Amendment abolishes Poll tax
    • 04/02/1887 – Interstate Commerce Act authorizes federal regulation of railroads
    • 04/02/1914 – US Congress approves Burnett-anti-immigration law
    • 04/02/1942 – Clinton Pierce becomes 1st US general wounded in action in WW II
    • 04/02/1945 – FDR, Churchill and Stalin meet at Yalta
    • 04/02/1997 – Sec of State Margaret Albright announces she just discovered that her grandparents were Jewish
    IN THE NEWS:
    REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:
    • GEOFFREY C. WARD on Drew Gilpin Faust: Death’s Army THIS REPUBLIC OF SUFFERING Death and the American Civil WarNYT, 1-27-08
    • Drew Gilpin Faust: THIS REPUBLIC OF SUFFERING Death and the American Civil War, First Chapter – NYT, 1-27-08
    • Richard M. Cook: In the American Grain ALFRED KAZIN A BiographyNYT, 1-27-08
    • Michael Kazin on Hugh Wilford: Dancing to the CIA’s Tune The secret funding of American artists and intellectuals in the ’50s and ’60s THE MIGHTY WURLITZER How the CIA Played AmericaWaPo, 1-24-08
    • Andrew Lycett, Jon Lellenberg, Daniel Stashower and Charles Foley: Beyond Baker Street Remembering Conan Doyle only as the inventor of Sherlock Holmes is a crime THE MAN WHO CREATED SHERLOCK HOLMES The Life and Times of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE A Life in LettersWaPo, 1-24-08
    • Bernard Lewis: Singled out by Slate’s Jacob Weisberg as the Big Thinker behind the Iraq War – Jacob Weisberg in Newsweek excerpt of his new book, The Bush Tragedy, 1-28-08
    • John Marschall: Book explores Nevada’s rich Jewish heritage Jews in Nevada: A HistoryReno Gazette Journal, 1-27-08
    • David Levering Lewis: Ouch! Bad review in the LAT – LAT, 1-23-08
    • Elie Wiesel: How did “Night” become a bestseller after rejections from publishers? – NYT Book Review, 1-20-08
    • Götz Aly: Digging into historical archives, he pieces together the life of an 11-year-old victim of the Holocaust – NYT Book Review, 1-20-08
    • Henry Louis Gates, Jr.: African American National Biography published after 10 years work – Press Release–Oxford University Press, 1-21-08
    OP-ED/LETTER TO THE EDITOR:
    BLOGSPHERE:
    PROFILED:
    FEATURE:
    • On Religion A Novice Filmmaker Profiles a ‘Lonely Man of Faith’ – NYT, 1-26-08
    • Matthew Pinsker: Historian explores the cottage where Lincoln spent his summers during the Civil War – Chronicle of Higher Ed, 1-25-08
    • Special Issue of the Journal of American History: Through the Eye of Katrina … The Past as Prologue? – News Release–OAH, 1-23-08
    INTERVIEWED:
    QUOTED:
    • Geoffrey Ward: “The Civil War is the most important thing that ever happened to us as Americans” and Faust’s book is remarkable, because it forces us to look at this much-analyzed event in a wholly new way. Ward called Faust — who recently became the first woman to be Harvard’s president — “a fine scholar, filled with fresh ideas,” and added, “My only worry is that Harvard’s gain will be history’s loss.” – NYT, 1-27-08
    • Bruce Thompson: Modern civil rights movement began in Maryland, historian says: “Martin Luther King Jr. truly was a leader and should be celebrated, but he didn’t create the movement. He stepped into it and broadened it…. “He [Charles Houston] said, ‘We can sue Jim Crow out of Maryland.’ That set a new tone that was going on the offensive.” – http://www.fredericknewspost.com, 1-22-08
    HONORED, AWARDED, AND APPOINTMENTS:
    • Constitutional Law Professor Michael J. Klarman Joins Harvard Law School Winner of 2005 Bancroft Prize, Klarman studies race relations and the role of the Supreme Court – Harvard Crimson, 1-24-08
    • John Nef: Honored by U. of Chicago – Chicago Tribune, 1-23-08
    • Lisa Jardine: Historian chosen to head fertility watchdog (UK) – Times (UK), 1-24-08
    SPOTTED:
    SPEAKING/EVENTS CALENDAR:
    • Feb. 9, 2008: Eric Arnesen, University of Illinois-Chicago professor of history and African-American studies, will give a free presentation on what roles African-Americans played in the railroad industry titled, “Black Railroaders and the Making of a Civil Rights Movement,” @ 2 p.m. at the National Railroad Museum’s Fuller Hall Theater – Green Bay Press Gazette, 1-20-08
    • May-September 2008: Elizabeth Brand Monroe, Deborah A. Lee, Lectures Showcase Leesburg’s History for 250th Anniversary – WaPo, 1-18-08
    • David Zabecki: Hooks up with Stephen Ambrose Tours / Zabecki will lead the 14-day tour to visit historic World War II sites in Gdansk, Krakow, Warsaw and Berlin from May 16-30, 2008.- Press Release–Stephen Ambrose Tours, 1-10-08
    ON TV: History Listings This Week:

    • The History Channel’s fascinating Life After People special on Monday night very much benefited from us humanfolk still being around, delivering 5.4 million viewers — the cabler’s most-watched telecast ever….
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History George H.W. Bush Author: Timothy Naftali, Monday, January 28, @ 2:15AM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History 2007 National Book Festival: Michael Beschloss, “Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How They Changed America, 1789-1989″ Author: Michael Beschloss, Monday, January 28, @ 3:30AM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History From Berlin to Baghdad: America’s Search for Purpose in the Post-Cold War World Author: Hal Brands, Monday, January 28, @ 4AM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • History Channel: “How the Earth Was Made,” Sunday, January 27, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :13 – Underground Bootleggers,” Monday, January 28, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :09 – Freemason Underground,” Monday, January 28, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :08 – New York,” Monday, January 28, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :Underground Apocalypse,” Monday, January 28, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries :Mega-Structures of the Deep,” Monday, January 28, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “History’s Mysteries :Devil’s Island: Hell on Earth,” Monday, January 28, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Book of Nostradamus,” Tuesday, January 29, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Exodus Decoded,” Tuesday, January 29, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Tsunami 2004: Waves of Death,” Tuesday, January 29, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Nostradamus: 500 Years Later,” Wednesday, January 30, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “History’s Mysteries :The Real Dracula,” Wednesday, January 30, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :11 – Dracula’s Underground,” Wednesday, January 30, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: ” MonsterQuest :America’s Loch Ness Monster,” Wednesday, January 30, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “UFO Files :The Pacific Bermuda Triangle,” Wednesday, January 30, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :Underground Apocalypse,” Thursday, January 31, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries :Mega-Structures of the Deep,” Thursday, January 31, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “1968 with Tom Brokaw” Friday, February 1, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Investigating History :The JFK Assassination,” Friday, February 1, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Tsunami 2004: Waves of Death,” Friday, February 1, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Universe,” Marathon Saturday, February 2, @ 2-5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Life After People,” Saturday, February 2, @ 5pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):
    • Jonah Goldberg: LIBERAL FASCISM #3 — 2 weeks on list – 2-3-08
    • Mark Booth: THE SECRET HISTORY OF WORLD #32 weeks on list – 2-3-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:
    • Joseph Wheelan: Mr. Adam’s Last Crusade: John Quincy Adams’s Extraordinary Post-Presidential Life in Congress, January 28, 2008.
    • Mark Puls: Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution, February 5, 2008.
    • Fidel Castro: Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, February 5, 2008.
    • Brian McGinty: Lincoln and the Court, February 15, 2008.
    • Matthew Dennison: The Last Princess: The Devoted Life of Queen Victoria’s Youngest Daughter, February 19, 2008
    • Nick Taylor: American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work, February 26, 2008.
    • Howard Taylor: Hudson Taylor’s Spiritual Secret, February 28, 2008.
    • H. David Stone: Vital Rails, February 28, 2008.
    • John Fea: The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the Rural Enlightenment in Early America ( U of Pennsylvania Press), February 29, 2008
    • Joseph Balkoski: From Beachhead to Brittany, March 10, 2008
    • Susan Nagel: Marie-Therese, Child of Terror: The Fate of Marie Antoinette’s Daughter, March 18, 2008
    • James Donovan: A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – the Last Great Battle of the American West (REV), March 24, 2008.
    • Scott McClellan: What Happened, April 28, 2008
    DEPARTED:
    • H. Bradford Westerfield: Influential Yale Professor, Is Dead at 79 – NYT, 1-27-08
    • Miles Lerman: A Leading Force Behind Holocaust Museum, Dies at 88 – NYT, 1-24-08

    Posted on Sunday, January 27, 2008 at 11:04 PM

    January 22, 2008

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:
    • Historian Doris Kearns Goodwin on “Dare to consider it: Put both on the ticket”: “King’s marching and sit-ins and his oratory created a climate that Congress had to respond to,” says the biographer, but LBJ’s political skills wrestled the legislation through Congress. “In this case, we wouldn’t just be combining a black and a woman, but the two narratives of the campaign: inspiration and experience, both of which are needed for change. It would be a bold move but a great one.” – Washington Post Writers Group, 1-20-08
    • Steve Ross on “Women turn on ‘traitor’ Oprah Winfrey for backing Barack Obama Oprah fans leave a barrage of negative messages on her official website in response to the talk show host’s support of Obama” “The moment a star opens their mouth and endorses one candidate, they alienate half their viewership.” – Sunday Times, UK, 1-20-08
    • William Jelani Cobb on “From Alabama to Obama” Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson on Obama: “They can either go quietly into the night or they can spend four years or eight years taking pot shots at Obama. They are on very, very thin ice right now…. Now they are having to do frantic, rear-guard marching. Jesse has been ambivalent. He endorsed Obama and then he criticized him, and everyone in politics knows you don’t endorse someone and then criticize them.” – Sunday Paper, 1-20-08
    • Obama and the Southern vote The idea of a black president stirs up old prejudices and new hopes in Tennessee and South Carolina – The Denver Post, 1-20-08
    • Super Tuesday is all over the map – Kansas City Star, 1-19-08
    • Analysis: Poor showing means Thompson likely to pull the plug – Gannett News Service, 1-20-08
    • ‘He’s no John Kennedy’: Excitement surrounding Sen. Obama’s campaign evokes comparisons – Robert Dallek: Dallek, now retired from Boston University and a Kennedy biographer, said Obama has gone beyond Kennedy in one respect – he’s appealing to Republicans and independents more openly. “Obama is being more bipartisan than Kennedy ever was,” Dallek said. He notes that Obama also claims a direct link to the Kennedy legacy – he’s been endorsed by JFK’s speech writer and adviser Ted Sorensen. – The Patriot Ledger, MA, 1-18-08
    • Editorial: Remembering That the Prize is the Presidency – The Berkeley Daily Planet, 1-18-08
    • Dan Carter on “Dirty tricks erupt in S.C. GOP race”: “Lee Atwater definitely established a kind of baseline for under-the-table politics and the use of tactics I don’t think you’d want to defend to your mama.” – Miami Herald, 1-18-08
    • E.J. Dionne, Jr.: Working-Class Blues To win the general election, the Democrats will need to speak to the concerns of the white working class – The New Republic, 1-17-08
    • Mark Kornbluh: Mich. voter turnout third highest in history “I would expect that we’re a Democratic primary (area) which does not have all the candidates in it. It would be hard to motivate students to the polls in that primary…. At MSU you saw very little mobilization going on for voters because the Democratic ballot did not give MSU voters the choice they wanted.” – MSU State News, MI, 1-16-08
    • Sean Wilentz: History Vindicates Clinton The New Republic: Remarks On LBJ, MLK Jr. Reflect Reality Of Civil Rights Movement – CBS News, 1-14-08
    • Edwards Has More Claim on King Than Clinton or Obama, Duke Professor Says Even Edwards’ $400 hair cut is reminiscent of King, says Timothy Tyson – Duke News, 1-17-08
    BIGGEST STORIES: Black History Month
    HNN STATS THIS WEEK:
    THIS WEEK IN HISTORY: This Week in History:

    • New Feature: On This Day in History…
    • 21/01/1789 – 1st American novel, WH Brown’s “Power of Sympathy,” is published
    • 21/01/1861 – Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign
    • 21/01/1950 – NY jury finds former State Dept official Alger Hiss guilty of perjury
    • 21/01/1953 – John Foster Dulles appointed as Secretary of State
    • 21/01/1977 – Pres Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders
    • 22/01/1371 – King Robert II Stuart of Scotland crowned
    • 22/01/1814 – 1st Knights Templar grand encampment in US held, NYC
    • 22/01/1863 – Union Gen Burnside’s “Mud March”
    • 22/01/1905 – Bloody Sunday: Russian demonstrators fired on by tsarist troops
    • 22/01/1944 – During World War II, Allied forces begin landing at Anzio Italy
    • 22/01/1945 – Heavy US air raid on Okinawa
    • 22/01/1946 – US president sets up CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
    • 22/01/1973 – Roe vs Wade: US Supreme Court legalizes some abortions
    • 22/01/1973 – US, North and South Vietnam and Vietcong sign boundary accord
    • 23/01/1492 – “Pentateuch” (Jewish holy book) 1st printed
    • 23/01/1552 – 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer becomes manditory in England
    • 23/01/1556 – Most deadly earthquake kills 830,000 in Shensi Province, China
    • 23/01/1571 – Queen Elizabeth I opens Royal Exchange in London
    • 23/01/1793 – Humane Society of Philadelphia (1st aid society) organized
    • 23/01/1845 – Uniform US election day for president and VP authorized
    • 23/01/1849 – Mrs Elizabeth Blackwell becomes 1st woman physician in US
    • 23/01/1907 – Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes 1st Native American US senator
    • 23/01/1933 – 20th amendment changes date of presidential inaugurations to 1/20
    • 23/01/1950 – Israeli Knesset resolves Jerusalem is capital of Israel
    • 23/01/1961 – Supreme Court rules cities and states have right to censor films
    • 23/01/1964 – 24th Amendment ratified, barring poll tax in federal elections
    • 23/01/1973 – Pres Nixon announces an accord has been reached to end Vietnam War
    • 24/01/1656 – 1st Jewish doctor in US, Jacob Lumbrozo, arrives in Maryland
    • 24/01/1847 – 1,500 New Mexican Indians and Mexicans defeated by US Col Price
    • 24/01/1964 – 24th Amendment to US Constitution goes into effect and states voting rights could not be denied due to failure to pay taxes
    • 25/01/1327 – King Edward III accedes to British throne
    • 25/01/1533 – England’s King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn (approximate date)
    • 25/01/1554 – Sir Thomas Wyatt gathers an army in Kent, rebels against Queen Mary
    • 25/01/1721 – Czar Peter the Great ends Russian-orthodox patriarchy
    • 25/01/1775 – Americans drag cannon up hill to fight British (Gun Hill Road, Bronx)
    • 25/01/1787 – Shays’ Rebellion suffers a setback when debt-ridden farmers, led by Capt Daniel Shays, fail to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass
    • 25/01/1851 – Sojourner Truth addresses 1st Black Women’s Rights Convention (Akron)
    • 25/01/1858 – Mendelssohn’s “Wedding March” 1st played, at wedding of Queen Victoria’s daughter Princess Victoria, to crown prince of Prussia
    • 25/01/1863 – General Joseph Hooker replaces Burnside as head of Army of Potomac
    • 25/01/1877 – Congress determines presidential election between Hayes-Tilden
    • 25/01/1882 – Bilu, a Russian Zionist organization, forms
    • 25/01/1890 – National Afro-American League forms in Chicago
    • 25/01/1905 – Largest diamond, Cullinan (3106 carets), found in South Africa
    • 25/01/1907 – Julia Ward Howe is 1st woman elected to Natl Inst of Arts and Letters
    • 25/01/1919 – Founding of League of Nations, 1st meeting 1 year later
    • 25/01/1961 – 1st live, nationally televised presidential news conference (JFK)
    • 25/01/1969 – US-North Vietnamese peace talks begin in Paris
    • 25/01/1988 – VP Bush and Dan Rather clash on “CBS Evening News” as Rather attempts to question Bush about his role in Iran-Contra affair
    • 26/01/1784 – Ben Franklin expresses unhappiness over eagle as America’s symbol
    • 26/01/1802 – Congress passes an act calling for a US Capitol library
    • 26/01/1861 – Louisiana becomes 6th state to secede
    • 26/01/1862 – Lincoln issues General War Order #1, calling for a Union offensive McClellan ignores order
    • 26/01/1863 – 54th Regiment (Black) infantry forms — War Dept authorizes Mass governor to recruit black troops
    • 26/01/1870 – Virginia rejoins US
    • 26/01/1907 – 1st federal corrupt election practices law passed
    • 26/01/1926 – Television 1st demonstrated (J L Baird, London)
    • 26/01/1939 – Filming begins on “Gone With the Wind”
    • 26/01/1942 – 1st US force in Europe during WW II go ashore in Northern Ireland
    • 26/01/1948 – Executive Order 9981, end segregation in US Armed Forces signed
    • 26/01/1980 – Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations
    • 26/01/1998 – Pres Clinton says “I want to say one thing to the American people I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky”
    • 27/01/1785 – 1st US state university chartered, Athens Georgia
    • 27/01/1823 – Pres Monroe appoints 1st US ambassadors to South America
    • 27/01/1870 – After accepting 15th amendment, VA is readmitted to Union
    • 27/01/1880 – Thomas Edison patents electric incandescent lamp
    • 27/01/1888 – National Geographic Society organizes (Wash DC)
    • 27/01/1926 – US Senate agrees to join World Court
    • 27/01/1941 – Peruvian agent Rivera-Schreiber warns of Jap assault on Pearl Harbor
    • 27/01/1944 – Leningrad liberated from Germany in 880 days with 600,000 killed
    • 27/01/1945 – Russia liberates Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camp (Poland)
    • 27/01/1973 – US and Vietnam sign cease-fire, ending longest US war and milt draft — William Rogers and Nguyen Duy Trinh sign US-N Vietnam treaty
    • 27/01/1977 – Pres Carter pardons most Vietnam War draft evaders (10,000)
    • 27/01/1977 – 1st broadcast of “Roots” mini-series on ABC TV
    • 27/01/1988 – Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves nomination of Judge Anthony M Kennedy to US Supreme Court
    • 27/01/1992 – Pres candidate Bill Clinton (D) and Genifer Flowers accuse each other of lying over her assertion they had a 12-year affair
    • 28/01/1547 – 9-year-old Edward VI succeeds Henry VIII as king of England
    • 28/01/1581 – James VI signs 2nd Confession of Faith in Scotland
    • 28/01/1858 – John Brown organized raid on Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
    • 28/01/1865 – Pres Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners
    • 28/01/1878 – Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
    • 28/01/1915 – 1st US ship lost in WW I, William P Frye (carrying wheat to UK)
    • 28/01/1915 – US Pres Wilson refuses to prohibit immigration of illiterates
    • 28/01/1916 – 1st Jewish Supreme Court justice, Louis Brandeis, appointed by Wilson
    IN THE NEWS:
    REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:
    • Elisabeth Bumiller: Consent and Advise CONDOLEEZZA RICE An American Life:A BiographyNYT, 1-20-08
    • Elisabeth Bumiller: CONDOLEEZZA RICE An American Life:A Biography, First Chapter – NYT, 1-20-08
    • Hugh Wilford: A Word From Our Sponsor THE MIGHTY WURLITZER How the CIA Played AmericaNYT, 1-20-08
    • Jacob Weisberg: THE PRESIDENCY Sins of the Son An attempt to penetrate the family drama behind George W. Bush’s decision to invade Iraq THE BUSH TRAGEDYWaPO, 1-17-08
    • Jacob Weisberg: THE BUSH TRAGEDY Interview – WaPO, 1-15-08
    • Brian Jay Jones: The man who gave us Rip, Ichabod and the Headless Horseman WASHINGTON IRVING An American OriginalWaPO, 1-17-08
    • D. Graham Burnett: Trying Leviathan The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case That Put the Whale on Trial and Challenged the Order of NatureNYT, 1-20-08
    • Edward J. Larson: Scholar sheds light on 1800’s confusing election – Deseret Morning News, 1-20-08
    • Lincolniana New and not so new perspectives on arguably the greatest of our presidents – WaPO, 1-17-08
    • Steve Penfold: From teatime to Timbits THE DONUT A Canadian HistoryGlobe and Mail, Canada, 1-19-08
    • Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.: His published journal entries barely mention Israel or the Holocaust – SHIMSHON ARAD in the Jerusalem Post, 1-15-08
    • David Levering Lewis: Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Levering Lewis says a long military-religious campaign bore seeds of troubled 21st century history God’s Crucible _ Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215AP, 1-15-08
    • Jacob Heilbrunn: Confrontation is central to the neocon movement’s origins and tactics, says the author of a new book They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the NeoconsChronicle of Higher Ed, 1-14-08
    OP-EDS:
    BLOGSPHERE:
    PROFILED:
    FEATURES:
    INTERVIEWS:
    QUOTED:
    • Founders’ letters lag in delivery Slow publication vexes scholars David McCullough: “You can tell a lot about a society from how it spends money. If this society is unwilling to spend it on something of such immense and colossal importance, then something is seriously wrong…. These volumes of the founders are more of a monument than anything built in stone,” he said. – Barbara oberg: Jefferson complained that writing was drudgery, but he seemed to thrive on it. His handwriting is flowing, consistent, easy to understand, and quite beautiful.” – Philadelphia Inquirer, 1-20-08
    • Founders’ letters lag in delivery Slow publication vexes scholars Barbara Oberg: Jefferson complained that writing was drudgery, but he seemed to thrive on it. His handwriting is flowing, consistent, easy to understand, and quite beautiful.” – Philadelphia Inquirer, 1-20-08
    • Jean Pfaelzer: Author says U.S. should learn immigration lessons of a century ago “The idea of temporary workers has proven to be wrong by the history. The Chinese were perceived as temporary people in this country … and they became very vulnerable because they didn’t have any rights.” – San Francisco Chronicle, 1-14-08
    • Connie Young Yu: “It’s a subject matter that has been so hidden from our history books; Jean brings it to life and describes the process and the climate of the popular opinion at the time. It’s hard for Americans to believe that, because it goes against the democratic beliefs in this country.” – San Francisco Chronicle, 1-14-08
    HONORED / AWARDED / APPOINTED:
    SPOTTED:
    CALENDAR:
    • Jan 23, 2008: Richard Steigmann-Gall will give a lecture entitled “Neither Aryan nor Semite: Mutability and Identity in the Third Reich.” at 3 p.m. at the University’s of Vermont’s Old Mill building – Burlington Free Press, 1-7-08
    • Feb. 9, 2008: Eric Arnesen, University of Illinois-Chicago professor of history and African-American studies, will give a free presentation on what roles African-Americans played in the railroad industry titled, “Black Railroaders and the Making of a Civil Rights Movement,” @ 2 p.m. at the National Railroad Museum’s Fuller Hall Theater – Green Bay Press Gazette, 1-20-08
    • May-September 2008: Elizabeth Brand Monroe, Deborah A. Lee, Lectures Showcase Leesburg’s History for 250th Anniversary – WaPo, 1-18-08
    • David Zabecki: Hooks up with Stephen Ambrose Tours / Zabecki will lead the 14-day tour to visit historic World War II sites in Gdansk, Krakow, Warsaw and Berlin from May 16-30, 2008.- Press Release–Stephen Ambrose Tours, 1-10-08
    ON TV: History Listings This Week:

    • PBS: America Experience The Lobotomist, Monday, January 21, 2008 @ 9pm EST
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Graham Bell’s Secrets Author: Seth Shulman, Sunday, January 20, @ 8PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: After Words: Kiron Skinner, “The Strategy of Campaigning,” interviewed by Marcus Mabry, Sunday, January 20, @ 9PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History The Dream: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Speech that Inspired a Nation Author: Drew Hansen, Sunday, January 20, @ 10PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History Jason Emerson, “The Madness of Mary Lincoln” Author: Jason Emerson, Sunday, January 20, @ 11PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, The Crisis That Shocked The Nation Author: Elizabeth Jacoway, Monday, January 21, @ 1AM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • History Channel: “Lost Book of Nostradamus,” Sunday, January 20, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Last Days on Earth,” Sunday, January 20, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Our Generation :Martin Luther King Assassination,” Monday, January 21, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Martin Luther King Jr. Day: The Making of a Dream,” Monday, January 21, @ 2:30pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Decoding The Past :Doomsday 2012: The End of Days,” Monday, January 21, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Life After People,” Monday, January 21, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Last Stand of The 300,” Tuesday, January 22, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Worlds :Braveheart’s Scotland,” Tuesday, January 22, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Mega Disasters :Hawaii Apocalypse,” Tuesday, January 22, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Decoding The Past :Prophecies of Israel,” Tuesday, January 22, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Street Gangs: A Secret History,” Wednesday, January 23, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Life After People,” Wednesday, January 23, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “MonsterQuest :American Werewolf,” Wednesday, January 23, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Bloodlines: The Dracula Family Tree,” Wednesday, January 23, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Titanic’s Final Moments: Missing Pieces,” Thursday, January 24, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Mysteries of the Garden of Eden,” Thursday, January 24, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Decoding The Past :Mayan Doomsday Prophecy,” Thursday, January 24, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Worlds,” Marathon Friday, January 25, @ 2-6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Tsunami 2004: Waves of Death,” Friday, January 25, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “A Global Warning?,” Friday, January 25, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries,” Marathon Saturday, January 26, @ 2-7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Nostradamus: 500 Years Later,” Saturday, January 26, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Countdown to Armageddon,” Saturday, January 26, @ 10pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):
    • Tom Brokaw: BOOM! #15 — 10 weeks on list – 1-27-08
    • Jonah Goldberg: LIBERAL FASCISM #10 — 1 week on list – 1-27-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:
    • Joseph Wheelan: Mr. Adam’s Last Crusade: John Quincy Adams’s Extraordinary Post-Presidential Life in Congress, January 28, 2008.
    • Mark Puls: Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution, February 5, 2008.
    • Fidel Castro: Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, February 5, 2008.
    • Brian McGinty: Lincoln and the Court, February 15, 2008.
    • Matthew Dennison: The Last Princess: The Devoted Life of Queen Victoria’s Youngest Daughter, February 19, 2008
    • Nick Taylor: American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work, February 26, 2008.
    • Howard Taylor: Hudson Taylor’s Spiritual Secret, February 28, 2008.
    • H. David Stone: Vital Rails, February 28, 2008.
    • John Fea: The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the Rural Enlightenment in Early America ( U of Pennsylvania Press), February 29, 2008
    • Joseph Balkoski: From Beachhead to Brittany, March 10, 2008
    • Susan Nagel: Marie-Therese, Child of Terror: The Fate of Marie Antoinette’s Daughter, March 18, 2008
    • James Donovan: A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – the Last Great Battle of the American West (REV), March 24, 2008.
    • Scott McClellan: What Happened, April 28, 2008
    DEPARTED:

    Posted on Sunday, January 20, 2008 at 6:00 PM

    January 14, 2008

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:
    • Ted Widmer on “The Road to the White House: Can anyone in 2008 leave us speechless?”: “I loved his speech Tuesday. It’s right out of the black church oratorical tradition, but I also thought back to the spoken poetry of Homer. There is literally a musical quality to Obama’s voice, a bit of a sing-song that he uses very skillfully.” – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1-11-08
    • Joseph J. Ellis: A promise of unpredictability Presidential candidates pledge a lot, but history says you can ignore most of it. – LAT, 1-2-08
    • Joseph Ellis: A Long History of Broken Campaign Promises – NPR, 1-7-08
    BIGGEST STORIES: Black History Month
    HNN STATS THIS WEEK:
    THIS WEEK IN HISTORY: This Week in History:

    • New Feature: On This Day in History…
    • 14/01/1601 – Church authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome
    • 14/01/1699 – Massachusetts holds day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches”
    • 14/01/1784 – Revolutionary War ends; Congress ratifies Treaty of Paris
    • 14/01/1864 – General Sherman begins his march to the South
    • 14/01/1878 – US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
    • 14/01/1943 – FDR and Winston Churchill confer in Casablanca concerning WW II
    • 15/01/1535 – Henry VIII declares himself head of English Church
    • 15/01/1777 – People of New Connecticut (Vermont) declare independence from England
    • 15/01/1780 – Continental Congress establishes court of appeals
    • 15/01/1870 – Donkey 1st used as symbol of Democratic Party, in Harper’s Weekly
    • 15/01/1942 – FDR asks commissioner to continue baseball during WW II
    • 15/01/1943 – World’s largest office building, Pentagon, completed
    • 15/01/1950 – 4,000 attend National Emergency Civil Rights Conference in Wash DC
    • 15/01/1973 – 4 Watergate burglars plead guilty in federal court
    • 15/01/1976 – Sara Jane Moore sentenced to life for attempting to shoot Pres Ford
    • 16/01/1581 – English parliament passes laws against Catholicism
    • 16/01/1776 – Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks
    • 16/01/1777 – Vermont declares independence from NY
    • 16/01/1865 – Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
    • 16/01/1870 – Virginia becomes 8th state readmitted to US after Civil War
    • 16/01/1883 – Pendleton Act creates basis of US Civil Service system
    • 16/01/1920 – 1st assembly of League of Nations (Paris)
    • 16/01/1920 – 18th Amendment, prohibition, goes into effect; repealed in 1933
    • 16/01/1938 – Benny Goodman refuses to play Carnegie Hall when black members of his band were barred from performing
    • 16/01/1944 – Gen Eisenhower took command of Allied Invasion Force in London
    • 17/01/1821 – Mexico permits Moses Austin and 300 US families to settle in Texas
    • 17/01/1874 – Armed Democrats seize Texas govt ending Radical Reconstruction
    • 17/01/1893 – Queen Liliuokalani deposed, Kingdom of Hawaii becomes a republic
    • 17/01/1911 – Failed assassination attempt on premier Briand in French Assembly
    • 17/01/1945 – Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews from the Nazis, arrested by secret police in Hungary
    • 17/01/1945 – Liberation of Warsaw by Soviet troops (end of Nazi occupation)
    • 17/01/1945 – Auschwitz concentration camp begins evacuation
    • 17/01/1946 – United Nations Security Council holds its 1st meeting
    • 17/01/1948 – Trial of 11 US Communist party members begins in NYC
    • 17/01/1961 – Eisenhower allegedly orders assassination of Congo’s Lumumba
    • 17/01/1966 – Martin Luther King Jr opens campaign in Chicago
    • 17/01/1983 – Alabama Gov George C Wallace, becomes governor for record 4th time
    • 17/01/1987 – Pres Reagan signs secret order permitting covert sale of arms to Iran
    • 17/01/1991 – Operation Desert Storm begins-US led allies vs Iraq
    • 17/01/1991 – Operation Desert Storm: 1st US pilot shot down (Jeffrey Zahn)
    • 17/01/1998 – Pres Clinton faces sexual harrament charges from Paula Jones
    • 18/01/1486 – King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV
    • 18/01/1671 – Pirate Henry Morgan defeats Spanish defenders, captures Panam
    • 18/01/1778 – Capt James Cook stumbles over Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands)
    • 18/01/1817 – San Mart¡n leads a revolutionary army over Andes
    • 18/01/1854 – Filibuster William Walker proclaims Republic of Sonora in NW Mexico
    • 18/01/1862 – Confederate Territory of Arizona forms
    • 18/01/1871 – 2nd German Empire proclaimed by Kaiser Wilhelm I and Bismarck
    • 18/01/1919 – WW I Peace Congress opens in Versailles, France
    • 18/01/1943 – Jews in Warsaw Ghetto begin resistance of Nazis
    • 18/01/1944 – 1st Chinese naturalized US citizen since repeal of exclusion acts
    • 18/01/1945 – Warsaw freed by Soviet army
    • 18/01/1991 – Iraq launches SCUD missiles against Israel
    • 18/01/1993 – Martin Luther King Jr holiday observed in all 50 states for 1st time
    • 19/01/1419 – French city of Rouen surrenders to Henry V in Hundred Years War
    • 19/01/1793 – French King Louis XVI sentenced to death
    • 19/01/1840 – Antarctica discovered, Charles Wilkes expedition (US claim)
    • 19/01/1861 – Georgia becomes 5th state to secede
    • 19/01/1861 – MS troops take Ft Massachusetts an Ship Island
    • 19/01/1865 – Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
    • 19/01/1871 – 1st Negro lodge of US Masons approved, New Jersey
    • 19/01/1920 – US Senate votes against membership in League of Nations
    • 19/01/1955 – 1st presidential news conference filmed for TV (Eisenhower)
    • 19/01/1981 – US and Iran sign agreement to release 52 American hostages
    • 19/01/1987 – Guy Hunt becomes Alabama’s 1st Republican governor since 1874
    • 19/01/1989 – Pres Reagan pardons George Steinbrenner for illegal funds for Nixon
    • 20/01/1778 – 1st American military court martial trial begins, Cambridge, Mass
    • 20/01/1785 – Samuel Ellis advertises to sell Oyster Island (Ellis Is), no takers
    • 20/01/1788 – Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, Ga
    • 20/01/1801 – John Marshall appointed US chief justice
    • 20/01/1807 – Napoleon convenes great Sanhedrin, Paris
    • 20/01/1868 – Florida constitutional convention meets in Tallahassee
    • 20/01/1869 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton becomes 1st woman to testify before Congress
    • 20/01/1937 – 1st Inauguration day on Jan 20th, (held every 4th years there-after)
    • 20/01/1939 – Hitler proclaims to German parliament to exterminate all European Jews
    • 20/01/1945 – FDR sworn-in for an unprecedented 4th term as president
    • 20/01/1949 – Pres Truman announces his point 4 program
    • 20/01/1953 – 1st live coast-to-coast inauguration address (Eisenhower)
    • 20/01/1961 – Robert Frost recites “Gift Outright” at JFK’s inauguration
    • 20/01/1969 – Richard M Nixon inaugurated as president
    • 20/01/1981 – 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for 444 days freed
    • 20/01/1981 – Ronald Reagan inaugurated as president
    • 20/01/1989 – Bush inaugurated as 41st president and Quayle becomes 44th vice pres — Reagan becomes 1st pres elected in a “0” year, since 1840, to leave office alive
    • 20/01/1993 – Bill Clinton inaugurated as 42nd president
    • 21/01/1789 – 1st American novel, WH Brown’s “Power of Sympathy,” is published
    • 21/01/1861 – Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign
    • 21/01/1950 – NY jury finds former State Dept official Alger Hiss guilty of perjury
    • 21/01/1953 – John Foster Dulles appointed as Secretary of State
    • 21/01/1977 – Pres Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders
    IN THE NEWS:
    • Tom Devine: Flood of support for green drive – Scotsman, 1-12-08
    • Raymond Arsenault on Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore: Forgotten Revolutionaries How Southern communists, socialists and expatriates paved the way for civil rights DEFYING DIXIE: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950WaPo, 1-13-08
    • Peniel E. Joseph on Randall Kennedy, Bruce Bartlett: Choosing Sides Who is to blame for America’s sordid racial history? SELLOUT The Politics of Racial Betrayal , WRONG ON RACE The Democratic Party’s Buried Past - WaPo, 1-13-08
    • Labor wedded to compulsory history – The Australian, 1-11-08
    • Sir Ian Kershaw: Historian to honour Holocaust dead – Manchester Evening News, 1-11-08
    • Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.: Accused of sugarcoating FDR’s views on Jews – RAFAEL MEDOFF, in a letter to the editor of the Weekly Standard, 1-14-07
    • John Swails: Historian who sued Oral Roberts over firing gets his job back (others do not) – Tulsa World, 1-11-08
    • Historians file anti-discrimination brief at Supreme Court citing history of Reconstruction – Zachary Krogman, HNN, 1-10-08
    • Norman Finkelstein: American Israeli critic meets senior Hezbollah official, visits former Israeli jail – AP, 1-7-08
    • Sean Wilentz: After taking on Obama supporters, they pound back – Cass R. Sunstein in the New Republic, 12-27-07
    • Shelley Fisher Fishkin: Mark Twain scholar at Stanford University, found a forgotten play by the author and saw it produced on Broadway – Chronicle of Higher Ed, 1-11-08
    • W. Richard West Jr.: Indian Museum Director Spent Nearly $50,000 on Painting of Himself (and by a non-Indian) – AP, 1-4-08
    REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:
    OP-ED/LETTER TO THE EDITOR:
    BLOGSPHERE:
    PROFILED:
    • Francesca Rochberg: Reading Signs: Shedding Light on Ancient Science Berkley Near Eastern Studies’ newest faculty member brings an understanding of ancient science and its direct connections to the present – UC Berkley, 1-9-08
    FEATURE:
    INTERVIEWED:
    QUOTED:
    • Nathan O. Hatch, president of Wake Forest University: “As a historian, I believe we learn from the past and apply that knowledge to the decisions we make today. Secrets and the government’s appropriate or inappropriate role in keeping them was a monumental issue during the Vietnam and Watergate era. Today, secrecy continues to be a topic of headlines. By hosting ‘Secrets versus Security,’ Wake Forest is not only hoping to illuminate an issue of concern to all citizens, but also provide opportunities for people to examine it through different lenses.” – Wake Forest University News Service, 1-8-08
    HONORED, AWARDED, AND APPOINTMENTS:
    SPEAKING EVENTS CALENDAR:
    • Jan 14, 2008: Timothy Naftali: Author of GEORGE H.W. BUSH, American Enterprise Institute Washington, DC, 5:30 PM
    • Jan 19, 2008: History conference Jan. 19 shines spotlight on John Gray at the 15th annual Beaumont History Conference – Lamar University, 1-10-08
    • Jan 23, 2008: Richard Steigmann-Gall will give a lecture entitled “Neither Aryan nor Semite: Mutability and Identity in the Third Reich.” at 3 p.m. at the University’s of Vermont’s Old Mill building – Burlington Free Press, 1-7-08
    ON TV: History Listings This Week:

    • PBS, The Jewish Amereicans, January 9, 16, 23, 2008 @ 9pm ET
    • C-Span2, BookTV: The Slave Ship: A Human History Author: Marcus Rediker, Sunday, January 13, @ 7PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • C-Span2, BookTV: Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left from Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning Author: Jonah Goldberg, Monday, January 14, @ 1AM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • History Channel: “Last Stand of The 300,” Sunday, January 13, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Hillbilly The Real Story,” Sunday, January 13, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Fort Knox: Secrets Revealed,” Monday, January 14, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Titanic’s Achilles Heel,” Tuesday, January 15, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Boneyard :Katrina,” Tuesday, January 15, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Godfathers,” Wednesday, January 16, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Worlds :Stalin’s Supercity,” Wednesday, January 16, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :11 – Dracula’s Underground,” Wednesday, January 16, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Deep Sea Detectives :Loch Ness: Great Monster Mystery,” Wednesday, January 16, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Sharp Shooters,” Thursday, January 17, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Plot to Kill Jesse James,” Thursday, January 17, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Investigating History :Billy the Kid,” Thursday, January 17, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries :Ships,” Thursday, January 17, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Dogfights :Tuskegee Airmen,” Friday, January 18, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Mega Disasters: San Francisco Earthquake,” Saturday, January 19, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “MonsterQuest,” Marathon Saturday, January 19, @ 8-11pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):
    • Tom Brokaw: BOOM! #5 — 9 weeks on list – 1-20-08
    • Joseph J. Ellis: AMERICAN CREATION #34 1-20-08
    • Tim Weiner: LEGACY OF ASHES #35 – 1-20-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:
    • The Great Experiment, by Strobe Talbott (S&S, Jan.). How mere tribes became great nations.
    • James J. Sheehan: Where Have All the Soldiers Gone?, (Houghton, Jan.). The rejection of violence after World War II redefined a continent. Europe chose material well-being over war.
    • Joseph Pierro: The Maryland Campaign of September 1862: Ezra A. Carman’s Definitive Study of the Union and Confederate Armies at Antietam, January 16, 2008.
    • John Dickie: Delizia!: The Epic History of the Italians and Their Food, January 8, 2008.
    • Joseph Wheelan: Mr. Adam’s Last Crusade: John Quincy Adams’s Extraordinary Post-Presidential Life in Congress, January 28, 2008.
    • Mark Puls: Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution, February 5, 2008.
    • Fidel Castro: Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, February 5, 2008.
    • Brian McGinty: Lincoln and the Court, February 15, 2008.
    • Matthew Dennison: The Last Princess: The Devoted Life of Queen Victoria’s Youngest Daughter, February 19, 2008
    • Nick Taylor: American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work, February 26, 2008.
    • Howard Taylor: Hudson Taylor’s Spiritual Secret, February 28, 2008.
    • H. David Stone: Vital Rails, February 28, 2008.
    • John Fea: The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the Rural Enlightenment in Early America ( U of Pennsylvania Press), February 29, 2008
    • Joseph Balkoski: From Beachhead to Brittany, March 10, 2008
    • Susan Nagel: Marie-Therese, Child of Terror: The Fate of Marie Antoinette’s Daughter, March 18, 2008
    • James Donovan: A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – the Last Great Battle of the American West (REV), March 24, 2008.
    • Scott McClellan: What Happened, April 28, 2008
    DEPARTED:

    Posted on Sunday, January 13, 2008 at 7:09 PM

    NEW HAMPSHIRE PRIMARY SPECIAL: Historians Comment

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

    NEW HAMPSHIRE PRIMARY SPECIAL: Historians Comment

    • Allan Lichtman on Hillary’s Big Win: “…. This could go all the way to South Dakota in June… “The women came home. Hillary Clinton yesterday made history by becoming the first woman in American history to win a major party primary, and she did it with the women. She was 12 points ahead or so among women voters, 11 points behind among male voters, and therein lies her victory….Never underestimate the persuasive power of Bill Clinton… CTV, 1-9-08
    • Allan Lichtman: New Hampshire leaves White House race wide open (Video) – CTV, 1-9-08
    • Allan Lichtman on the Republican side: “Let’s not again make the mistake that one swallow makes the spring. How well is McCain going to play in the South? He could even lose to (Mitt) Romney in Michigan (on Jan. 15).” – CTV, 1-9-08
    • Gil Troy: Center Field: Making elections real events not ‘pseudo events’ – Jerusalem Post/HNN, , 1-9-08
    • Julian Zelizer: “He could rise again if he does get a win in Michigan, so I think it’s pretty premature to write him off. But losing New Hampshire definitely hurts him. It creates the perception of someone who is losing, which is one of the most devastating things in this primary process because it gets voters nervous.” – Reuters, 1-9-08
    • Ted Widmer: “Still, unlike other candidates’ spouses, Mr. Clinton will always bring rock star expectations. At first it’s disorienting to see him anywhere that isn’t the center.” — NYT, 1-9-08
    • N.H. Primary Built on a History of Tradition, People Power Presidential historians and analysts consider the role that New Hampshire’s historically independent electorate has played in past primaries and discuss how the creation of the state’s contest was intended to open up the process and “give it to the people.” (mp3) – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Michael Beschloss: “Well, you know, New Hampshire, I guess like everything else, it just is not what it used to be. It used to be the first test of what people thought about presidents and also gave you a good idea where the public was. Maybe the most vintage New Hampshire primary was 1968, Eugene McCarthy, the anti-war Vietnam war candidate, was running against an incumbent president, Lyndon Johnson, almost won, the first big sign that Vietnam was going to be a big issue in presidential politics that year. In recent years now, you not only have the Iowa caucus first, but also a very small amount of time between those two events, now, of course, five days. And in recent years, I think it has not been by accident that in 2000 and 2004, on the Democratic side, New Hampshire confirmed the result of the Iowa caucuses.” – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Michael Beschloss: “It is so easy for independents, for instance, to go in — we’re seeing it today — and vote in a Democratic primary that you oftentimes have a result that is largely shaped by people who are not traditional Democrats.” – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Richard Norton Smith: Well, that’s true, but it’s also where the independents go. I mean, we all know that in 2000, for example, the Al Gore people thought there was a real chance that they were going to lose the New Hampshire primary to Bill Bradley. Their polls were suggesting that if independents broke the way they thought they would, for example, that Bradley, who had a very much this kind of insurgent appeal, would win. In fact, at the last minute, the independents voted overwhelmingly for John McCain, and it really was the end of the Bradley candidacy and it was the making of John McCain. And we’re seeing if history repeats itself tonight. – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Ellen Fitzpatrick: “Well, it goes really back to the early 20th century and the construction of the primary system itself, which was a reform of the progressive era. The idea was to try to take the decision over who the party’s nominee would be out of the smoke-filled rooms and away from the party bosses and to give it to the people. And what has happened, New Hampshire put that process in place. The legislature approved it in 1913. And over the course of the 20th century, each time it modified the rules, it did so in ways to open access to more and more voters to participate in the process. It drew on a strong tradition of local government and, in fact, was designed to coincide initially with the annual town meeting. And it has been said that the idea was the frugal New Hampshirites wanted to save money and only light the town hall twice — excuse me, light it once, when they could have the primary and the town meeting on the same day. That’s how it got to be in March initially.” – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Ellen Fitzpatrick: “You have in New Hampshire extremely independent voters, not just by the fact that there’s a large number of independents, but even within the parties they have been unpredictable. And it gives a kind of power to the whole conversation.” – Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-8-08
    • Bruce Schulman: Clinton’s self-deprecating response during Saturday’s ABC/Facebook debate when asked why New Hampshire voters seemed to like Obama more. “Well,” she replied, “that hurts my feelings.” Bruce Schulman, Boston University political history professor, said it was a winning moment for Clinton. “She was very coy and funny,” he said. – Boston Herald, 1-9-08
    • Angela Davis: “(Obama) is being consumed as the embodiment of color-blindness. It’s the notion that we have moved beyond racism by not taking race into account. That’s what makes him conceivable as a presidential candidate. He’s become the model of diversity in this period, and what’s interesting about his campaign is that it has not sought to invoke engagements with race other than those that have already existed.” – blogs.cqpolitics.com, 1-9-08
    • Timothy McCarthy: “There is a stream of optimism that runs through American politics and persists. The founding fathers were dreamers: Jefferson took Locke’s ‘life, liberty and property’ and turned it into ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’.” – Guardian (UK), 1-8-08
    • Allan Lichtman: “The value of the early primaries is precisely to have a slingshot effect, to propel you towards victory in the later primaries….Independents play a huge role in the New Hampshire primary because they can choose to vote in either the Republican or Democratic primaries. They could be a large segment of the vote in a very small state and a very independent-minded state like New Hampshire.” – VOA, 1-6-08
    • Stephen Hess: “These people have been studying. They almost feel that they can not vote for the candidate unless they have personally looked him in his eye and shook his hand.” – VOA, 1-6-08

    Posted on Wednesday, January 9, 2008 at 4:20 PM

    January 7, 2008

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH: IOWA CAUCUS SPECIAL: Historians Comment

    • Robert Dallek: “What is there to hold them together? They want to win. They want to control.” – US News, 1-4-08
    • Gil Troy: All eyes on N.H. as race to White House tightens (Video) – CTV Newsnet, 1-4-08
    • Stanley Kutler: Watergate historian says Thompson should be regarded principally as “Baker’s man,” taking his cues from the senator and going no further. “What I’m saying to you diminishes severely Fred Thompson’s role as some sort of intrepid independent investigator. He is neither intrepid nor independent nor much of an investigator.” – AP, 1-4-08
    • Richard Norton Smith on “Propelling unknown candidates”: “This is the state historically where someone can come in with very little in the way of financial resources or name recognition and … it is theoretically possible for someone to catapult themselves into the front rank.” – PBS, Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-3-08
    • Beverly Gage on “Small, committed electorate”: Iowa itself has developed a committed group of activists, a way of doing business that you wouldn’t see anywhere else.” – PBS, Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-3-08
    • Michael Beschloss on “Notable Iowa races”: “[T]o have Iowa with so much importance in the beginning, it’s going to affect so much the outcome probably in New Hampshire four or five days later, I think people have to set a little bit more in context than they seem to be doing.” – PBS, Newshour with Jim Lehrer, 1-3-08
    • Michael Beschloss: “It’s pretty important for a future president to be able to connect with voters and explain him or her self. Iowa makes them do that.” – KXAN Austin News, 1-3-08
    • Alan Lichtman on “Showdown in Iowa: For GOP and Dems alike, it may be a photo finish”: “The point is, this is the first real vote, as opposed to opinion polls.” – Salt Lake Tribune, 1-3-08
    • But Watergate historian Stanley Kutler says Thompson should be regarded principally as “Baker’s man,” taking his cues from the senator and going no further. “What I’m saying to you diminishes severely Fred Thompson’s role as some sort of intrepid independent investigator,” Kutler said. “He is neither intrepid nor independent nor much of an investigator.”
    • Alan Lichtman on “US Presidential Contenders Enter Final Week Before Iowa Vote”: “The Iowa caucuses are important because they are the first nominating contest in the election year. They are caucuses, but that simply means you have to come to a meeting to vote.” – VOA, 12-27-07
    • Sean Wilentz: “There is a unity but right now its born of 40 years of howling at the moon. By all historical precedents, the Democrats should be poised for a big comeback. But there are no guarantees.” – NYT, 1-6-08
    • Robert Dallek: “This is roughly like the time of the beginning of the Cold War, when the country was searching for a wise policy to meet the international challenges. That’s really the big issue of this election.” – Bloomberg, 1-3-08
    • Julian Zelizer: “The issues are immense. One of the big questions the next president will need to deal with is the economic insecurity of middle-class Americans. Another will be health care, which both parties now agree has become a serious problem.” – Bloomberg, 1-3-08
    • Stephen M. Gillon on “Edwards brings fighting words Populist message stirs old passions in a different era”: “What’s surprising is that he has made the calculated decision to return to this unvarnished populist message that’s unfiltered, unrestrained, and recalls the legacy of earlier Democratic campaigns. The question is whether the world has changed so much in the past 40 years that the language can still work.” – Boston Globe, 1-1-08
    • Tom Morain on “Iowa Braces for the Morning After”: “We have a job to do and people are watching. But once the circus moves on, I don’t think we expect anyone to continue to pay attention to us. We’ll want to think that we acted responsibly, that we took the measure of the candidates and did a respectable job.” – Time, 12-31-07
    BIGGEST STORIES:
    • Reporter’s Notebook: Highlights from the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association (Wash. DC) – HNN, 1-3-08
    • The AHA 2008 General Meeting – Prizes and Awards – AHA Blog, 1-4-08
    HNN STATS THIS WEEK:
    THIS WEEK IN HISTORY: This Week in History:

    • New Feature: On This Day in History…
    • 07/01/1927 – Transatlantic commercial telephone service began between New York and London.
    • 07/01/1953 – Harry Truman announced that the U.S. had developed the hydrogen bomb.
    • 07/01/1979 – Vietnamese forces captured the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh, overthrowing Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge government.
    • 07/01/1999 – The impeachment trial of President William Clinton began in the Senate.
    • 08/01/1790 – George Washington delivers 1st state of union address (or Jan 4)
    • 08/01/1815 – Battle of New Orleans-War of 1812 ended 12/24/1814 but nobody knew
    • 08/01/1853 – 1st US bronze equestrian statue (of Andrew Jackson) unveiled, Wash
    • 08/01/1867 – Legislation gives suffrage to DC blacks, despite Pres Johnson’s veto
    • 08/01/1918 – Mississippi becomes 1st state to ratify 18th amendment (prohibition)
    • 08/01/1918 – Pres Wilson outlines his 14 points for peace after WW I
    • 08/01/1925 – 1st all-female US state supreme court appointed, Texas
    • 08/01/1958 – Cuban revolutionary forces capture Havana
    • 08/01/1964 – President Lyndon B Johnson declares “War on Poverty”
    • 08/01/1975 – Judge Sirica orders release of Watergate’s John W Dean III, Herbert W Kalmbach and Jeb Stuart Magruder from prison
    • 09/01/1349 – 700 Jews of Basel Switzerland, burned alive in their houses
    • 09/01/1570 – Tsar Ivan the terrible kills 1000-2000 residents of Novgorod
    • 09/01/1839 – Daguerrotype photo process announced at French Academy of Science
    • 09/01/1861 – Mississippi becomes 2nd state to secede
    • 09/01/1861 – 1st hostile act of Civil War; Star of West fired on, Sumter, SC
    • 09/01/1905 – Bloody Sunday-demonstrators fired on by tsarist troops (1/22 NS)
    • 09/01/1945 – US soldiers led by Gen Douglas MacArthur invades Philippines
    • 10/01/1776 – “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine, published
    • 10/01/1811 – Louisiana slaves rebell in 2 parishes
    • 10/01/1861 – Florida becomes 3rd state to secede from US
    • 10/01/1863 – 1st underground railway opens in London
    • 10/01/1878 – US Senate proposes female suffrage
    • 10/01/1920 – League of Nations established
    • 10/01/1928 – Soviet Union orders exile of Leon Trotsky
    • 10/01/1943 – 1st US pres to visit a foreign country in wartime-FDR leaves for Casablanca, Morocco
    • 10/01/1946 – UN General Assembly meets for 1st time (London)
    • 10/01/1966 – Julian Bond denied seat in Ga legislature for opposing Vietnam War
    • 10/01/1967 – PBS (the National Educational TV) begins as a 70 station network
    • 11/01/1785 – Continental Congress convenes in NYC
    • 11/01/1803 – Monroe and Livingston sail for Paris to buy New Orleans; they buy La
    • 11/01/1861 – Alabama becomes 4th state to secede
    • 11/01/1897 – M H Cannon becomes 1st woman state senator in US (Utah)
    • 11/01/1986 – 1st black gov since reconstruction sworn in (Douglas Wilder of Va)
    • 11/01/1991 – Congress empowers Bush to order attack on Iraq
    • 12/01/1863 – President Davis delivers his “State of Confederacy” address
    • 12/01/1915 – House of Reps rejects proposal to give women right to vote
    • 12/01/1944 – Churchill and de Gaulle begin a 2-day wartime conference in Marrakesh
    • 13/01/1559 – Elizabeth I crowned queen of England in Westminster Abbey
    • 13/01/1630 – Patent to Plymouth Colony issued
    • 13/01/1733 – James Oglethorpe and 130 English colonists arrive at Charleston, SC
    • 13/01/1794 – Congress changes US flag to 15 stars and 15 stripes
    • 13/01/1869 – Colored National Labor Union, 1st Black labor convention
    • 13/01/1888 – National Geographic Society founded (Washington, DC)
    • 13/01/1898 – Emile Zola publishes his open letter (J’accuse) in defense of Dreyfus
    • 14/01/1601 – Church authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome
    • 14/01/1699 – Massachusetts holds day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches”
    • 14/01/1784 – Revolutionary War ends; Congress ratifies Treaty of Paris
    • 14/01/1864 – General Sherman begins his march to the South
    • 14/01/1878 – US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
    • 14/01/1943 – FDR and Winston Churchill confer in Casablanca concerning WW II
    IN THE NEWS:
    REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:
    • David J. Garrow on Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore: Early Warriors in the Fight for Racial Equality DEFYING DIXIE The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950N”YT, 1-4-08
    • Hugh Kennedy:The Early Days The Great Arab Conquests How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live InNYT, 1-6-08
    • John Kelsay: Soldiers of Allah ARGUING THE JUST WAR IN ISLAMNYT, 1-6-08
    • Tony Platt on Dana Frank: Local Girl Makes History Exploring Northern California’s Kitsch MonumentsSan Francisco Chronicle, 1-4-08
    • Anne Harrington: The Cure Within – A History of Mind-Body MedicineHealth News Digest, 1-2-08
    • Robert Dallek: Says Condi Rice’s reputation tied to Iraq failures (Dallek in the NYT in the course of a review of a new biography of Condoleezza Rice by NYT reporter Elisabeth Bumiller) – NYT, 12-27-07
    OP-ED/LETTER TO THE EDITOR:
    PROFILED:
    • James MacGregor Burns: Political historian takes new direction at age 89 – AP, 12-22-07
    FEATURE:
    INTERVIEWED:
    QUOTED:
    • John Voll on “Caliph Wanted Why An old Islamic institution resonates with many Muslims today”: “You begin to see groups that do not see the world according to the state-oriented model of politics. You get postmodern Islamists, notably jihadists, who see politics in a global way…and with Ayman al-Zawahari [the Egyptian physician who became bin Laden's chief strategist], you get the idea of global jihad.” – US News, 1-2-08
    • Jeffrey Peck: Germany’s Jews Latkes and vodka Immigrants from the former Soviet Union are transforming Jewish life in Germany – Economist, 1-3-08
    HONORED, AWARDED, AND APPOINTMENTS:
    SPEAKING EVENTS CALENDAR:
    • Jan 10, 2008: National Archives Hosts Public Symposium on Slave Trade Act Thursday, January 10, 2008, 9 AM – 5:30 PM William G. McGowan Theater, National Archives Building Constitution Avenue between 7th and 9th Streets, NW, Washington, DC. – UrbanMecca.com, FL, 12-9-07
    • Jan 14, 2008:Timothy Naftali: Author of GEORGE H.W. BUSH, American Enterprise Institute Washington, DC, 5:30 PM
    ON TV: History Listings This Week:

    • PBS: “Andrew Jackson: Good, Evil and the Presidency” Wednesday, Jan. 2 at 9 p.m.
    • C-Span2, BookTV: In Depth – Author Nell Painter, Sunday, January 6, from 12-3 PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • History Channel: “Crime Wave: 18 Months of Mayhem,” Sunday, January 6, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Fort Knox: Secrets Revealed,” Sunday, January 6, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Special : Nazi America: A Secret History,” Monday, January 7, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Special : Absolute Evel: The Evel Knievel Story.,” Tuesday, January 8, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :’80’s Tech,” Tuesday, January 8, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Biggest Machines in the West,” Tuesday, January 8, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Deadwood Tech,” Tuesday, January 8, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels : Private Collections,” Wednesday, January 9, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :60’s Tech,” Wednesday, January 9, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :70’s Tech,” Wednesday, January 9, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Native American Tech,” Wednesday, January 9, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Decoding The Past :The Real Sorcerer’s Stone,” Wednesday, January 9, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Brothers in Arms: The Untold Story of The 502 : D-Day,” Thursday, January 10, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Biggest Machines in the West,” Thursday, January 10, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Gang Tech,” Thursday, January 10, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “History’s Mysteries :Ancient Monster Hunters,” Thursday, January 10, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Hippies,” Friday, January 11, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Wild West Tech :Massacre Tech,” Friday, January 11, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Antichrist,” Saturday, January 12, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Crime Wave: 18 Months of Mayhem,” Saturday, January 12, @ 8pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):
    • Tom Brokaw: BOOM! #4 — 8 weeks on list – 1-13-08
    • Joseph J. Ellis: AMERICAN CREATION #16 — 9 weeks on list – 1-13-08
    • Geoffrey C. Ward: THE WAR #20 – 1-13-08
    • David Halberstam: THE COLDEST WINTER #32 – 1-13-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:
    • The Great Experiment, by Strobe Talbott (S&S, Jan.). How mere tribes became great nations.
    • James J. Sheehan: Where Have All the Soldiers Gone?, (Houghton, Jan.). The rejection of violence after World War II redefined a continent. Europe chose material well-being over war.
    • John Dickie: Delizia!: The Epic History of the Italians and Their Food, January 8, 2008.
    • Mark Puls: Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution, February 5, 2008.
    • Fidel Castro: Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, February 5, 2008.
    • Brian McGinty: Lincoln and the Court, February 15, 2008.
    • H. David Stone: Vital Rails, February 28, 2008.
    • John Fea: The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the Rural Enlightenment in Early America ( U of Pennsylvania Press), February 29, 2008
    • James Donovan: A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – the Last Great Battle of the American West (REV), March 24, 2008.
    • Scott McClellan: What Happened, April 28, 2008
    DEPARTED:

    Posted on Sunday, January 6, 2008 at 6:11 PM

    December 31, 2007

    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:
    • Allan Lichtman on “In presidential politics, Iowa still packs a wallop”: “With African-American and Hispanic voters less than 5 percent of its electorate, Iowa is ‘completely unrepresentative of the country,’ argued American University political historian , calling the caucuses ‘a media obsession” with predictive benchmarks that don’t predict.'” – St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12-31-07
    HNN STATS THIS WEEK:
    THIS WEEK IN HISTORY: This Week in History:

    • 12-31-1879 – Thomas Edison gave the first public demonstration of an electric incandescent lamp.
    • 12-31-1946 – President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II.
    • 12-31-1961 – The Marshall Plan expired after distributing more than $12 billion in foreign aid.
    • 01-01-1863 – Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
    • 01-01-1908 – The ball signifying the New Year was dropped for the first time at Times Square in New York City.
    • 01-01-1914 – The world’s first airline, St. Petersburg Tampa Airboat Line, starts operation in St. Petersburg, Florida.
    • 01-01-1959 – Fidel Castro and his revolutionaries took over Cuba and toppled Fulgencio Batista’s regime.
    • 01-01-1975 – John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, and John Ehrlichman were convicted of obstruction of justice in the Watergate affair.
    • 01-02-1492 – Muhammad XI, the leader of the last Arab stronghold in Spain, surrendered to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I.
    • 01-02-1788 – Georgia was admitted to the Union as the 4th state.
    • 01-02-1905 – The Russo-Japanese war ended.
    • 01-02-1923 – The African-American town of Rosewood, Fla., was burned by a white mob./li>
    • 01-02-1935 – The Bruno R. Hauptmann trial began for the kidnap and murder of the Lindbergh baby.
    • 01-02-1959 – The first spacecraft to fly by the Moon and also to orbit the Sun, Mechta (Luna 1) was launched by the USSR.
    • 01-02-1994 – Rudolph Giuliani is inaugurated as New York City’s mayor.
    • 01-03-1521 – Martin Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X.
    • 01-03-1777 – George Washington defeated Cornwallis’s forces at the Battle of Princeton.
    • 01-03-1833 – Britain seized control of the Falkland Islands.
    • 01-03-1870 – Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge began.
    • 01-03-1920 – The New York Yankees acquired Babe Ruth and so began the “curse of the Bambino” that haunted the Boston Red Sox until 2004.
    • 01-03-1947 – Congressional proceedings were televised for the first time.
    • 01-03-1959 – Alaska became the 49th state in the United States.
    • 01-03-1967 – Jack Ruby, the man who shot John Kennedy’s assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, died.
    • 01-04-1885 – Dr. William W. Grant of Davenport, Iowa, performed what is thought to be the first appendectomy.
    • 01-04-1896 – Utah was admitted as 45th state in the United States.
    • 01-04-1904 – In Gonzales v. Williams, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that citizens of Puerto Rico are not aliens and can enter the U.S. freely.
    • 01-04-1951 – During the Korean War, North Korean and Communist Chinese forces captured the city of Seoul.
    • 01-04-1965 – President Johnson outlined his “Great Society” in his State of the Union address.
    • 01-05-1914 – Henry Ford introduced the $5-a-day minimum wage.
    • 01-05-1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross became the first woman governor of a state (Wyoming).
    • 01-05-1972 – President Nixon ordered the development of the space shuttle.
    • 01-06-1540 – King Henry VIII of England married his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.
    • 01-06-1759 – George Washington married Martha Custis.
    • 01-06-1838 – Samuel Morse gave the first public demonstration of the telegraph.
    • 01-06-1912 – New Mexico became the 47th state in the United States.
    • 01-06-1919 – Former president Theodore Roosevelt died in Oyster Bay, N.Y.
    IN THE NEWS:
    REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:
    • Drew Gilpin Faust: Old lions, overseas talents eye bestseller lists – Boston Globe, 12-31-07
    • David Anderegg: Ridicule That’s Getting On Our Nerds NERDS Who They Are and Why We Need More of ThemWaPo, 12-30-07
    • Robert Dallek: A Year of Books Worth Curling Up With – NYT, 12-28-07
    • Avi Shlaim: The lion king – Haaretz, 12-27-07
    • Jay Winik: THE GREAT UPHEAVAL: AMERICA AND THE BIRTH OF THE MODERN WORLD, 1788–1800 Named one of Providence Journal’s The books we loved in ’07 – Providence Journal, 12-30-07
    OP-ED/LETTER TO THE EDITOR:
    BLOGOSPHERE:
    PROFILED:
    • David Smith: “Librarian to the Stars,” The Library’s Helpful Sage of the Stacks – NYT, 12-31-07
    FEATURE:
    • Your Grandfather’s War In a virtual world of fantasy and science fiction, realistic videogames set in World War II are ever popular. But is this a good way to learn history? – Newsweek, 12-28-07
    • Building on historical lore THERE’S LIMITED TIME LEFT TO STUDY CLARK COUNTY’S INDIAN OLD FIELDS – Lexington Herald Leader, 12-30-07
    INTERVIEWED:
    QUOTED:
    • Ron Barkai on “Kids who can’t read in school, grow up to be college students who can’t write”: “Most of them suffer from the same problem, they are unable to write. They cannot put together a sentence and present a coherent argument in print… In Israel, pupils don’t learn how write. In France, for example, they give this issue tremendous attention. If you graduate from high school, you know how to write an essay and how to organize conflicting arguments about any given subject. In Israel, students begin to learn in university what they should have mastered in high school.”- Ha’aretz, 12-27-07
    EXHIBITIONS / NEW WEBSITES:
    SPEAKING EVENTS CALENDAR:
    • Jan 10, 2008: National Archives Hosts Public Symposium on Slave Trade Act Thursday, January 10, 2008, 9 AM – 5:30 PM William G. McGowan Theater, National Archives Building Constitution Avenue between 7th and 9th Streets, NW, Washington, DC. – UrbanMecca.com, FL, 12-9-07
    • Jan 14, 2008:Timothy Naftali: Author of GEORGE H.W. BUSH, American Enterprise Institute Washington, DC, 5:30 PM
    ON TV: History Listings This Week:

    • PBS: “Andrew Jackson: Good, Evil and the Presidency” Wednesday, Jan. 2 at 9 p.m.
    • C-Span2, BookTV: In Depth – Author Nell Painter, Sunday, January 6, from 12-3 PM ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • History Channel: “American Eats,” Marathon Tuesday, January 1, @ 2-6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Universe :Mysteries of the Moon,” Tuesday, January 1, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :Christmas Tech,” Tuesday, December 25, @ 7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Hunt for John Wilkes Booth,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Battlefield Detectives :The Civil War: Antietam,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Horrors at Andersonville Prison: The Trial of Henry Wirz,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :Civil War Tech,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels :Guns of the Civil War,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Worlds :Secret U.S. Bunkers,” Wednesday, January 2, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Seven Wonders of the World,” Thursday, January 3, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld :03 – London’s Lost Cities,” Thursday, January 3, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Lost Worlds :Al Capone’s Secret City,” Thursday, January 3, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Decoding The Past :Secrets of the Dollar Bill.,” Friday, January 4, @ 11pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The Plague,” Saturday, January 5, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ku Klux Klan: A Secret History,” Saturday, January 5, @ 8pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):
    • Tom Brokaw: BOOM! #3 — 7 weeks on list – 1-6-08
    • Geoffrey C. Ward: THE WAR #12 — 12 weeks on list – 1-6-08
    • Joseph J. Ellis: AMERICAN CREATION #15 — 8 weeks on list – 1-6-08
    • David Halberstam: THE COLDEST WINTER #31 – 1-6-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:
    • The Great Experiment, by Strobe Talbott (S&S, Jan.). How mere tribes became great nations.
    • James J. Sheehan: Where Have All the Soldiers Gone?, (Houghton, Jan.). The rejection of violence after World War II redefined a continent. Europe chose material well-being over war.
    • John Dickie: Delizia!: The Epic History of the Italians and Their Food, January 8, 2008.
    • Mark Puls: Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution, February 5, 2008.
    • Fidel Castro: Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, February 5, 2008.
    • Brian McGinty: Lincoln and the Court, February 15, 2008.
    • H. David Stone: Vital Rails, February 28, 2008.
    • John Fea: The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the Rural Enlightenment in Early America ( U of Pennsylvania Press), February 29, 2008
    • James Donovan: A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – the Last Great Battle of the American West (REV), March 24, 2008.
    • Scott McClellan: What Happened, April 28, 2008
    DEPARTED:

    Posted on Tuesday, January 1, 2008 at 5:07 PM

    Top Young Historians: 81 – Eric Jennings

    Top Young Historians

    Eric Jennings, 37

    Basic Facts

    Teaching Position: Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator Department of History, University of Toronto
    Area of Research: Modern France, French colonialism, decolonization, and the francophone world.
    Education: Ph.D. University of California at Berkeley, 1998
    Major Publications: Jennings is the author of Curing the Colonizers: Hydrotherapy, Climatology, and French Colonial Spas (Duke UP, 2006); Vichy in the Tropics: Pétain’s National Revolution in Madagascar, Guadeloupe and Indochina, 1940-1944 (Stanford UP, 2001), winner of the 2001 Alf Heggoy Prize for best book on French Colonial History from the French Colonial Historical Society. French translation: Vichy sous les Tropiques: La Révolution nationale à Eric T. Jennings  JPG Madagascar, en Guadeloupe, en Indochine, 1940-1944 (Paris: Grasset, 2004). Jennings is also the Editor of a reader entitled French Colonial Indochina (Forthcoming, Nebraska University Press), and Co-editor, with Jacques Cantier, of a collective volume entitled L’Empire colonial sous Vichy, (Paris: Odile Jacob, 2004). His next research project is entitled “Cloning France in Highland Indochina, Dalat 1880-1954″.
    Jennings is also the author of numerous scholarly journal articles, book chapters and reviews including: “Colons, colonisés, ou emigrés? Enjeux identitaires de l’émigration depuis Saint- Pierre et Miquelon, 1903-1939″ the Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 54:4 (October-December 2007). “Writing Madagascar back into the Madagascar Plan” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 21:2 (Fall 2007): 187-217; “Urban Planning, Architecture, and Zoning at Dalat, Indochina, 1900-1944″ Historical Reflections (Summer 2007), special issue on French colonial urbanism; “Madagascar se souvient: les multiples visages du monument aux morts du Lac d’Anosy, Antananarivo” Outre-mers (formerly the “Revue d’histoire française d’histoire d’outre-mer”) 351 (2006), special issue on “Sites et moments de mémoire”: 123-140; “Conservative Confluences, ‘Nativist’ Synergy: Re-inscribing Vichy’s National Revolution in Indochina” French Historical Studies, special issue on “the New French Colonial History.” 27:3 (Summer 2004): 601-635; “Last Exit from Vichy France: The Martinique Escape Route and the Ambiguities of Emigration, 1940-1941″ The Journal of Modern History 74 (June 2002): 289-324.
    Awards: Jennings is the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships including among others:
    Canadian Institute for Health Research/ AMS/Hannah Grant in the History of Medicine (Priority Announcement), 2007-2008;
    Joint Initiative in German and European Studies (University of Toronto) Faculty Research Award, 2006;
    University of Toronto History Department SIG Grant, 2005;
    Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Standard Research Grant (including RTS), 2004-2007;
    Associated Medical Services, Inc/ Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine, Research Grant, 2004;
    Joint Initiative in German and European Studies (University of Toronto) Faculty Research Award. Project on European colonial medical networks- research in London, 2003;
    Associated Medical Services, Inc/ Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine, Research Grant, 2003;
    Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Standard Research Grant, 1999-2003;
    Declined: Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Postdoctoral Fellowship, to have been held at Stanford; 1998-1999;
    Mabelle McLeod Lewis Memorial Fund Fellowship Write-up fellowship for graduate students in the final year of their Ph.D., 1997-1998;
    Franco-American Foundation Bicentennial Fellowship One of three fellowships awarded in North America for graduate students to undertake research in France, 1995-1996;
    Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Doctoral Fellowship, 1993-1995.
    Additional Info:
    In May 2006 Jennings was invited to lead an intensive graduate seminar at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris.
    Jennings was interviewed on the “New French Colonial History” with France Culture’s program “La Fabrique de l’Histoire.” was interviewed on French-language television to introduce the historical drama “Stavisky” on TFO, first aired January 23, 2001.
    He is also an Advisor for W. W. Norton Co. on revisions to undertake for a second edition of John Merriman’s History of Modern Europe.

    Personal Anecdote

    I too considered sharing my first experiences at the magnificent Eiffel-style French national library in Paris, at a time when it still hired someone to wake readers up from their slumber, and when it featured a special section known as “hell” – the repository for racy books. In the end, it seemed incompatible with my new role as “young historian,” given that several generations of truly young researchers have now been working at the ultra-modern, concrete Bibliothèque nationale. Instead, I have decided to recount aspects of my trips to Madagascar, a country that has twice captured my attention, once in a study on the impact of the Vichy regime there, and more recently for a history of its main spa, Antsirabe.

    Antsirabe is many places wrapped in one. The city boasts several industries, including a beer plant, textile works, and naturally, a mineral-water bottling facility. But it is also a sleepy bourgeois town, developed by the French around the turn of the twentieth century to remind the colonizers of home. Villas still bear romantic French titles, such as flower names, or the more vacation-oriented “mon repos.” The grand Hôtel terminus, also known as the Hôtel des thermes, has aged. Still evoking on its exterior Antsirabe’s ambitions of grandeur, it was renovated on the interior, no doubt in the seventies, with the latest appointments and goldenish carpeting. The train station sits atop a disproportionately wide boulevard, along which the colonizers were once pulled in rickshaws. How, I wondered after weeks working through dossiers on the spa in Madagascar’s national archives, how would the town look today, and how had the Malagasy come to view this quintessentially colonial site long after independence? More importantly for my hydrotherapy project, how if at all, had the spa’s function and image changed?

    In the colonial era, my files showed, Antsirabe was considered a panacea against the island’s ills: malaria and other tropical diseases. The spa’s waters were analyzed at length by French and even Norwegian scientists, who posited its resemblance to other waters known for their malaria-fighting virtues: Vichy’s. Thus, colonials and colonized had thronged to the spa to seek both preventative and post-contraction cures against malaria. As I entered the spa building for the first time, I pondered postcolonial ruptures and continuities. For one thing, the spa had emerged as a more egalitarian site. Gone, obviously, were the divides between baths for Europeans and Malagasy. But gone too was the colonial specialization. A bilingual sign on the wall announced as follows the spa’s curative coverage: “liver disease, gastric ailments, diabetes, colitis, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, dermatological, psychological and gynecological ills, sterility, low and high blood pressure.” What had happened? For one thing, Madagascar’s mainstream medical establishment is suffering, medical and social coverage are virtually unknown. Relatively inexpensive hydrotherapy has therefore been drawing Malagasy patients in droves. But might this also speak to pre and post-colonial continuities-to the Malagasy recovering precolonial water practices? This question led me to wade into deeper currents-and to explore precolonial uses of the waters, which in turn, profoundly marked my approach to Curing the Colonizers.

    There were nonetheless many evident carry-overs from colonial times. For one thing, Antsirabe’s sparkling mineral water is still known and sold as “Rano-Visy,” meaning “Vichy water” in Malagasy. That connection remains strong. So too does the idea of Antsirabe as a small replica of France, one where local elites have replaced the old colonial ones. On a more recent trip to Madagascar in 2005, I shared a taxi in the capital Antananarivo with a Chinese businessman involved in textiles- a lucrative and increasingly common relocation since the passing in 2000 of the US African Growth and Opportunity Act. This globalization moment was soon followed by a colonial allusion. My interlocutor raved about a recent weekend in Antsirabe-the closest he would ever get to France, he assured me. Antsirabe, the “France clone” that I was studying, was displaying an enduring afterlife.

    Quotes

    By Eric T. Jennings

  • “In a volume published in Hanoi in 1941, prefaced by the Emperor of Annam, Bao Dai, an Indochinese journalist Vichy  in the Tropics JPGbearing the royal name of Ton That Binh outlined the fundamental affinities between Confucianism and Pétainism. With syllogistic reasoning, he first established that “the Annamite [read Vietnamese] instinctively loves his Patrie,” then argued that Vichy in the Tropics JPG “the Annamite is profoundly attached to his Famille.” …. The finest example of Confucian-Pétainist parallelism, however, can be found in a 1942 text that presented side by side aphorisms and maxims from both philosophies. The book, Sentences parallèles franco-annamites bore on its cover the nationalist pseudonyms of Jean François (read Français), and Nguyen Viet-Nam (no translation necessary), and contained nearly one hundred pages of cultural similarities designed to startle, but that in reality sometimes amounted to universal truisms rather than truths. — Eric T. Jennings in “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • About Eric T. Jennings

  • “This well written, fast moving, and always intriguing book looks at the development of Vichy’s colonial policy and how it reflected its leaders’ deeply held values. Bringing together much previously unknown material, Jennings reveals the extent to which Vichy policy fostered and triggered nationalism in the French colonies.” —- William B. Cohen, Indiana University reviewing “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • “What Eric Jennings’ fine study provides is a look inside Vichy’s empire, exploring the ways in which Vichy’s ideology played out in three tropical settings.” -— H-France Book Reviews reviewing “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • “Jennings’s study is a first-rate, original contribution to the scholarship of the French empire. His style is clear and coherent, and his work is not ponderous nor slow. Although aimed at advanced students of both the Vichy period and French expansionism, Vichy in the Tropics is a work that will enlighten anyone with an interest in Europe during World War II.” —- History reviewing “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • “This excellent book . . . .opens up a field that has received scant attention even from French scholars of empire who tend to dismiss it, particularly in terms of its significance for any understanding of French decolonizati on.” -— American Historical Review reviewing “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • “This original, timely, and finely crafted comparative study of French colonial policies and ethnic relations during the second quarter of the twentieth century represents a significant contribution to colonial cultural history.” —- Journal of Interdiciplinary History
  • “In this interesting an innovative study, Eric Jennings makes an important contribution to the history of Vichy France that is at once original in subject matter, grounded in substantial archival research, and convincing in its key arguments.” —- Journal of Modern History reviewing “Vichy in the Tropics”
  • “Curing the Colonizers is a thoroughly original, fascinating study. It will complement and immediately stand among the very finest studies of colonialism/imperialism in the past decades.” —- John Merriman, author of “Police Stories: Building the French State, 1815-1851″ reviewing “Curing the Colonizers”
  • “Eric T. Jennings’s ability to give an in-depth understanding of five very different regions, mastering the primary and secondary literature on all of them, is simply breathtaking. To my knowledge, no one else has managed to write this kind of colonial history, examining the imperial framework as a whole while at the same time giving detailed information about individual colonies.” — Tyler Stovall, coeditor of “The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France” reviewing “Curing the Colonizers”
  • “This is a very well constructed study, with the case studies rounded off by a measured conclusion. The main themes are clearly argued and demonstrated, the text nicely illustrated with postcards, advertisements and other illustrations. It is a very welcome addition to the growing literature on the spas.” — Alastair J. Durie, “French History” reviewing “Curing the Colonizers”
  • Posted on Sunday, January 20, 2008 at 6:24 PM

    On This Day in History… January 15-17, 1950: The National Emergency Civil Rights Conference in Washington, DC

    By Bonnie Goodman, HNN, 1-14-08

    Ms. Goodman is the Editor / Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University. She blogs at History Musings

    On this day in history… January 15-17, 1950, over 4000 attend the National Emergency Civil Rights Conference in Washington, DC.

    In the 1940s activists in the civil rights movement focused on the issue of fair employment practices, especially within the federal government. Their efforts culminated in the establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC). As J. J. Goldberg writes: “Their undertaking was a powerful show of force, and it created new momentum for civil rights in Washington and nationwide.” (Goldberg, 128) Coming just years before the monumental Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. the Board of Education, the mobilization in 1949 and 1950 in support of President Truman’s civil rights program was a major development.

    The first break in the employment battle came in 1941. A. Philip Randolph, the labor leader and civil rights activist, warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt that if he did not create a temporary Committee on Fair Employment Practices, there would be a march on Washington in protest. The FEPC was formed to protect workers from discrimination in hiring in the Federal government. This was the beginning of the March on Washington movement, which worked on behalf of advancements for blacks, and was responsible for the National Council for a Permanent FEPC in 1944.

    The leading figures in the National Council were Clarence Mitchell and Roy Wilkins of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and Arnold Aronson of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council, who later served as its executive secretary. Randolph was co-chairman of the Council with the Reverend Allan Knight Chalmers of the Broadway Tabernacle Church, but Randolph was responsible for most of the decision-making. The National Council was, as Uwe Wenzel writes, “intended to function as a clearinghouse for all activities in behalf of permanent federal FEPC legislation including both public relations work and Washington lobbying.” (Miller, 50) The Council found support from both sides of the aisle in Congress, with liberal Republicans and Northern Democrats supporting proposals for a permanent FEPC.

    To put pressure on Congress the Council issued press releases, and held rallies and meetings, where congressmen would speak in defense of civil rights legislation. Several hundred gathered at small meetings at churches, but there were larger affairs, including a rally held at Madison Square Garden attended by 20,000. Still the Council’s influence was limited. As Wenzel writes, while the meetings raised the morale of FEPC supporters, “the group was unable to place the issue of fair employment in the forefront of the American public’s attention.” (Miller, 51)

    Although there were congressman who supported the initiative, it was difficult to persuade others to join because interracial issues were not important to their constituents. Supporters were unable to un able to get a final vote for legislation. Even worse, the debate incited Southern congressmen to close down the wartime FEPC in June 1946, by terminating funding to it. The National Council would never have the momentum again to act as the leader in the movement to create a permanent FEPC; internal strife within the organization and financial woes plagued it. The Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization would take over the fight for the FEPC in the late 1940s.

    President Harry S. Truman wanted to push several civil rights measures including the creation of a permanent FEPC, but faced congressional opposition. Despite the Council’s lobbying efforts, the conservative Congress was not willing to pass Truman’s proposed legislation. After the Council was proven ineffective, Wilkins formed the National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization committee. As Gilbert Jonas writes, it was a “call for a massive interracial lobbying effort in 1949 to be conducted by representatives of all sympathetic national organizations.” (Jonas, 156) The mobilization’s mission was “to break down opposition to the passage of the civil rights bills.” (Collier-Thomas, 37) It was a model of interracial coalition building. The coalition included over 100 black and white religious, political, and civil rights organizations.

    Among the hundred organizations that supported the mobilization were several women’s organizations including the National Association of Christian Woman (NACW), the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), and several sororities. It became important to add a women’s division, and in December 1949, the Women’s Division of the National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization was formed. Aretha McKinley, an officer in New York City’s NAACP office, headed the new division. The division’s purpose was to show black women what was at stake: “They have the right to speak up against unfair employment practices since these effect both themselves and their husbands, they are also concerned with discrimination and segregation as these questions apply to housing problems and so directly effect their homes. In addition women have the right to speak up for the future of their children.” (Collier-Thomas, 37)

    The peak of the mobilization effort came on January 15-17, 1950 when more than 4,200 delegates from fifty-eight national organizations met in Washington to lobby their congressman to support the president’s civil rights program, and a permanent FEPC. Among the supporters was the Women’s Division, and hundreds of black women from numerous clubs, sororities, and organizations attended the conference. (Collier-Thomas, 38) The conference was, as Jonas states, the “largest lobbying effort in the history of the nation.” (Jonas, 157) The participants spread over Capitol Hill in a massive grass-roots lobbying effort.

    Meanwhile, Wilkins led a delegation that met with President Truman, where Wilkins listed the group’s demands. President Truman told Wilkins he had already pledged his support to the civil rights program and a fair employment law. The activists, said Truman, should focus their efforts on Congress:

    YOU don’t need to make that speech to me, it needs to be made to Senators and Congressmen. Every effort is being made by the executive branch of the Government to get action on these measures. I have been working at them ever since I went to Congress. I went there in 1935, and that is a long time ago…. This is a serious situation. This civil rights program, which I have sent to the Congress on every occasion that it has been possible to send it, is one that is necessary, if we are going to maintain our leadership in the world. We can’t go on not doing the things that we are asking other people to do in the United Nations. I hope all of you will continue your hard work on the subject, and that you will make it perfectly plain to the Senators and Congressmen who represent your States and districts that action is what we want; and I think that is possibly the only way we can get action. (Truman, January 17th, 1950)

    Despite the conference’s lobbying efforts the FEPC and civil rights legislation received a second defeat in the Senate in 1950, which seemed to mark the end of congressional support for such legislation. The debates in the Senate on Truman’s civil rights program focused primarily on the revival of FEPC. It should have been, as Truman biographer Robert Ferrell writes, “obviously fair and appropriate.” (Ferrall, 297) The committee would allow African Americans a chance for economic success. Still the Senate refused to pass the mneasure. Opposition came from Southern Democrats and Mid-Western Republicans.

    Despite a lack of support for major civil rights legislation, Truman issued an executive order as a temporary solution. Executive Order No. 9980 created a Fair Employment Board within the Civil Service Commission. Its success was debatable because discrimination was often subtle and difficult to prove. Butr historians note some success was evident in the state department and the bureau of printing and engraving. (Ferrall, 297)

    Despite the failure in Congress, the 1950 conference was considered a success and prompted the participants to create a permanent organization. At the conference, the coalition decided to form this organization, with a mission of lobbying for the passage of civil rights legislation. The result was the formation of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, a name that was formally adopted in 1951. The main Washington office would focus on lobbying, while the member organizations would serve in a supportive role, paying dues and educating their members about the proposed civil rights legislation. In practice Wilkins was the head of the new LCCR, although officially the ailing Walter White was the first director. The NAACP’s Clarence Mitchell served as legislative chair, Arnold Aronson as secretary and labor attorney Joseph L. Rauh as LCCR counsel. Randolph still remained focused on the FEPC and decided not to join the LCCR executives. The LCCR, as Wenzel writes, became “the most successful interracial alliance.” (Miller, 53)

    The LCCR, created out of the January 1950 conference, “became a force in United States politics.” (Gates, 251) Clarence Mitchell’s lobbying efforts were central to its later success. He spent endless hours roaming the halls of Congress and became known as the “101st Senator.” (Gates, 251) Although the National Council and National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization, and then the LCCR worked tirelessly for the creation of a permanent FEPC, their efforts were in vain initially, they found success by playing an important role in getting the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, and 1964, and the Voting Rights Acts of 1965 passed through Congress. In 1964 the FEPC was finally created.

    Sources and further reading:

    Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, eds., Africana: An A-To-Z Reference of the Movement That Changed America, (Running Press, 2005).

    J. J. Goldberg, Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment, (Addison-Wesley, 1996)

    Robert H. Ferrell, Harry S. Truman: A Life, (University of Missouri Press, 1996).

    Gilbert Jonas, Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969, (Routledge, 2005).

    Patrick B. Miller, Therese Steffen, Elisabeth Schäfer-Wünsche, eds. The Civil Rights Movement Revisited: Critical Perspectives on the Struggle, (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2001).

    Nina Mjagkij, ed., Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, (Garland, 2001).

    Bettye Collier-Thomas and Vincent P. Franklin, eds., Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement, (NYU Press, 2001).

    Harry S. Truman, “Remarks to a Delegation From the National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization Conference,” January 17th, 1950.

    Top Young Historians: 80 – Stephanie M. H. Camp

    Top Young Historians

    Stephanie M. H. Camp, 39

    Basic Facts

    Teaching Position: Associate Professor of History, University of Washington, September 2004 to present, Core Faculty, Africa and Diaspora Studies, September 2003 to present, Adjunct Assistant Professor of Women Studies, Fall 2000 to present, Affiliate Faculty, Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies, Fall 2002 to present.
    Area of Research: African-American history, History of Slavery, American South
    Education: Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, History, 1998
    Major Publications: Camp is the author of Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. (Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004), Winner, 2005 Annual Lillian Smith Book Award for New Voices in Non Fiction, The Southern Regional Council and the University of Georgia Libraries, Stephanie  Camp JPG Honorable Mention, 2005 John Hope Franklin Prize, American Studies Association, Finalist, 2005 Washington State Book Award Washington, Washington Center for the Book at The Seattle Public Library, Included in the Gender and American Culture series. She is also the editor with Edward E. Baptist New Studies in the History of American Slavery (Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 2006). Camp is also the author of numerous scholarly journal articles, book chapters and reviews including among others: “Ar’n’t I a Woman? and the History of Race and Sex in the U.S.” Part of “The History of Woman and Slavery: Considering the Impact of Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South on the Twentieth Anniversary of Its Publication” article by Daina Ramey Berry, Stephanie M.H. Camp, Leslie Harris, Barbara Krauthamer, Jessica Millward, Jennifer L. Morgan. Journal of Women’s History. 19, 2 (June 2007), Winner, 2007 Letitia Woods Brown Memorial Prize for the best article on black women’s history; “I Could Not Stay There': Enslaved Women, Truancy, and the Geography of Everyday Forms of Resistance in the Antebellum Plantation South.” Reprinted in Nancy Hewitt and Kirsten Delegard, eds., Women, Families and Communities: Readings in American History (1994; Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education, 2007); “I Could Not Stay There': Enslaved Women, Truancy, and the Geography of Everyday Forms of Resistance in the Antebellum Plantation South,” Slavery and Abolition, 23, 3 (December 2002). (Peer-reviewed.); “The Pleasures of Resistance: Enslaved Women and Body Politics in the Plantation South, 1830-1861,” Journal of Southern History 68, 3 (August 2002). (Peer-reviewed.)
    Awards: Camp is the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships including among others:
    Institute for Ethnic Studies in the United States grant, summer 2007;
    Institute for Ethnic Studies in the United States grant, summer 2004;
    Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, 2000-2001;
    Faculty Fellow, Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities Society of Scholars, University of Washington, Winter, 2001;
    Associate Fellow, Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition, Yale Center for International and Area Studies, March 2001;
    Royalty Research Fund Scholar, University of Washington, Summer 2000;
    Sydney and Frances Lewis Fellowship for Research in Women’s History, Virginia Historical Society, 1999;
    Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Library Company of Philadelphia, Summer, 1998;
    Huggins-Quarles Dissertation Award, Organization of American Historians, 1997;
    Andrew W. Mellon Predoctoral Fellow, Virginia Historical Society, 1997-98;
    Minority Scholar in Residence, Vassar College, 1997-98;
    Ford Foundation Doctoral Fellowship for Minorities, 1997-98. (Declined.);
    Predoctoral Fellowship, Carter G. Woodson Institute, 1997-1998. (Declined.);
    Department of History Mellon Dissertation Fellowship, University of Pennsylvania, 1995-96;
    Fontaine Fellowship, University of Pennsylvania, 1992-1995;
    Yale University Fellowship, 1990-92.
    Additional Info:
    Formerly Scholar in Residence, Vassar College, 1997-98, and Instructor, Department of History, University of Pennsylvania, 1997.
    Camp served on the Board of Editors of the Journal of Southern History. She has been interviewed on NPR, NPR’s Seattle affiliateand Oregon Public Television; and she has have given public talks on black history in a variety of public settings including Seattle Arts and Lectures, the Central District Forum for Arts and Ideas and Monroe Correctional Complex.

    Personal Anecdote

    Like virtually all historians, I have rehearsed repeatedly the intellectual forces that brought me to my first book, which was also my dissertation: the oversights in the historiography, the theoretical developments that informed my contribution to the field, the sources that deserved new analysis. What I have often wondered about, though, were the personal motivations for writing a dissertation and then a book on enslaved women’s resistance. Did I, as a young, black woman, identify with black women who were enslaved more than a century ago? Did I, so often charged with being unnaturally defiant, need to cathect that identification on resistance, and not subjugation? As I mature into an experienced teacher who has seen many of my students compelled to identify with the variety of characters we study, I find myself having the courage to admit that the answer to these questions is “yes.”

    That this is a difficult admission needs no lengthy explanation. Professional historians know that “the past is another country,” as our historicist forefathers (sic) wrote to explain their breaking away from the generally acontextual, moralistic narratives that preceded them. Identification is but a way of obfuscating difference, a romantic fantasy of a sameness that does not exist. I have come to believe this basic tenet of our profession as much as anyone. But not, perhaps, as much as some.

    From my students I have learned to give identification some credit. While their feelings of association with slaves, slaveholders, poor white southerners, abolitionists and others are often confusing and painful, students’ sense of connection with and investment in them is a powerful motivation for the hard work required to leap into the minds, lives and worlds of people who lived so far apart from us. For me, identification was precisely the spur that got me asking questions, even if I had to learn to dis-identify in order to hear properly the answers for what they were: the words of others.

    Students’ sense of the connection between themselves and this country’s slave past is also right. That is, “the past is another country” is not exactly an accurate descriptor of the U.S.’s relationship to its slave past, or to any aspect of its past. The American economy, culture and politics were all shaped (some have argued they were made) by the institution of slavery. The same is true for the many past lives and lands consumed in the making of today’s United States. Where is the line dividing the country of the past from this one? When students see, for example, their high school experiences in the educational institutions available to freedpeople in the late nineteenth century, are they narcissistically shoe-horning the whole world into their own? Perhaps a bit. But I have come to think that they are also appreciating the organic nature of the life of a country. That (somewhat ahistorically self-centered) sense of connection is one I now embrace as a potentially radical first step, as it was for me, towards re-envisioning the U.S. as constituted in and still living with the legacy of, its histories of exploitation and subjugation-and resistance.

    Quotes

    By Stephanie M. H. Camp

  • By the antebellum period, laws, customs and ideals had come together into a systematic constriction of slave movement that helped establish slaveholders’ sense of mastery. Planters presided over controlled and controlling Closer to Freedom JPG landscapes dictating the movements of their slaves. Enslaved women and men alike were bound by this ‘geography of containment,’ but women in greater numbers and with greater consistency were confined to southern plantations; as a group they enjoyed much less mobility than did men.

    In violation of slaveholders’ orders and the state’s laws, though, enslaved people left the quarters; again and again enslaved people ran away and created other kinds of spaces that gave them room and time for their families, for rest from work, and for amusement; on occasion, women moved forbidden objects into their quarters to worrisome effect. In short, enslaved people created a ‘rival geography’-alternative ways of knowing and using southern space that conflicted with planters’ ideals and demands.” — Stephanie M. H. Camp in “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”

  • About Stephanie M. H. Camp

  • “This slim volume makes a substantial and often ingenious contribution to slavery studies and to women’s and southern history. Taking pleasure seriously, studying space without getting trapped in the ‘public versus private’ debate, finding new information in much-mined sources, and complicating our knowledge of enslaved women’s resistance are valuable in themselves. They are also potent hints at what Camp and those who follow her lead will accomplish in the coming years.” — American Historical Review review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “Camp’s creative and elegant work reinforces the interconnectedness of North and South, slave and free, in the lives of enslaved people.” — Signs review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “Closer to Freedom is beautifully written, accessible, and truly enjoyable to read. It will make all readers rethink how we understand women’s lives under slavery, how we understand the historical significance of space, and how we conceptualize the process of slavery itself.” — The Journal of Southern History review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “Through the lens of geography, Camp successfully introduces a new language to describe and interpret everyday resistance among enslaved women and men. Scholars interested in a different approach to this important topic will find Closer to Freedom refreshing.” — Civil War History review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “This elegant and often profound monograph casts a fresh eye on the daily acts of self-preservation and disguised defiance that historians of slavery have called ‘everyday resistance.’ . . . Illuminating both the texture of enslaved women’s lives and the concept of everyday resistance, Closer to Freedom is both a welcome teaching text and an accessible study for general readers.” — North Carolina Historical Review review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”

  • “The book is well written throughout, and Camp really does seem to get inside the minds of enslaved women. . . . This is a promising first book and an interesting and innovative addition to the historiography of the lives of the enslaved.” — Georgia Historical Quarterly review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “Camp has written a provocative book full of astonishing, sometimes unforgettable moments. Moreover, she has raised important questions about the way slave women resisted their owners. Ultimately no one will be able to answer the questions that Camp asks without coming to grips with the world she describes.” — Virginia Magazine of History and Biography review of “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “Stephanie Camp’s brilliant study draws upon numerous fields of scholarship–feminist theory, anthropology, sociology–to produce an innovative reinterpretation of enslaved women in the plantation South. Sensitive, bold, and imaginative, Closer to Freedom is the first book to place black women at the center of everyday resistance to bondage.” — Douglas R. Egerton, Le Moyne College reviewing “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • “The author’s attention to a ‘spatial history of American slavery’ reveals contests over physical space as a hitherto unappreciated dimension of the everyday politics of plantation life. This book skillfully brings into view clandestine pockets–ephemeral but resilient–in which slave women, in particular, struggled to sustain a ‘rival geography’ in which powers of mastery could be held at bay.” — Julie Saville, University of Chicago reviewing “Closer to Freedom Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South”
  • Posted on Sunday, January 13, 2008 at 6:33 P

    Top Young Historians: 79 – Ted Widmer

    Top Young Historians

    Ted Widmer, 44

    Basic Facts

    Position: Beatrice and Julio Mario Santo Domingo Director and Librarian, John Carter Brown Library (July 2006 to present)
    Area of Research: American history and politics
    Education: Ph.D., History of American Civilization, Harvard University, 1993
    Major Publications: Widmer is the author of Martin Van Buren (Henry F. Holt/Times Books, 2005); Campaigns: A Century of Presidential Races, co-authored with Alan Brinkley (DK Publishing, 2001); Edward L.  Widmer JPG Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City (Oxford University Press, 1999); recipient of the 2001 Washington Irving Literary Medal. American Speeches, a two-volume definitive collection of political speeches from the American Revolution to the end of the 20th century, (Library of America, 2006). He is also the editor of The Harvard Lampoon, 1876-2001 (published privately, 2001).
    Widmer is currently working on Ark of the Liberties: America and the World (a history of the idea that the United States is the world’s source of liberty); to be published by Farrar Straus Giroux in 2008.
    Widmer is also the author of numerous scholarly journal articles, book chapters and reviews, and he is also a frequent contributor to a variety of text and online publications, including the New York Observer, New York Times, Boston Globe, Baltimore Sun, Salon, Slate, The Guardian, Chicago Tribune, and Los Angeles Times.
    Awards: Widmer is the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships including among others:
    Fellow, New America Foundation (2007);
    Gilder-Lehrman Fellowship (2005);
    Washington Irving Literary Medal (2001, for Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City);
    Fellow, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Studies, Harvard (1995-6);
    Fellow, John Carter Brown Library (1994);
    Stephen Botein Teaching Award, Harvard University (1994);
    Mellon Fellowship in the Humanities.
    Additional Info:
    Widmer is formerly the inaugural Director, C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience and Associate Professor of History, Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland, 2001-2006.
    Widmer was also Special Assistant to former President Clinton, and served in the Clinton White House as Senior Advisor to the President for Special Projects, as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, and as Director for Speechwriting at the National Security Council.
    Widmer was Contributing Editor, George (1996-1997), and is Contributing Editor, The American Scholar (2005-present).
    Widmer was also a Lecturer on History and Literature, Harvard University, 1993-1997 (received 1994 Stephen Botein Prize for Teaching Excellence).
    Senior Research Fellow, New America Foundation (2007); Consultant to The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (2000-present); Board of Trustees, Harvard Lampoon (1996-present); Juror, Robert F. Kennedy Book Prize (2006); Advisory Board of the Lincoln Prize (for best book on the Civil War or Lincoln); Elected to Massachusetts Historical Society, 2002; Elected to American Antiquarian Society, 2006. He also discovered the earliest baseball box score (1845) featured on front page of New York Times (October 4, 1990).

    Personal Anecdote

    I have often wondered if it’s healthy to spend so much time living in the past. Is it not a little bit creepy to stalk people who lived so long ago, peering through windows into their private lives, extrapolating enormous conclusions about conditions we cannot possibly experience?

    Of course, that has never stopped me for a second from doing all of those things. Nor you – for while else would you interrupt a perfectly productive day to read a gossipy anecdote about a random historian? Thank God HNN came along when it did to provide this long-overdue professional service.

    For me, the past was always there, even in childhood, beckoning in the most subtle and alluring ways. It may have started with baseball cards. I remember learning that older ones were more valuable, so perhaps it was merely an economic calculation, but I don’t think so. Even as a kid, I remember thinking that the older cards were exotic; nothing was odder in Nixon-era America, with all of its facial hair, than to see those crewcuts peering out from a piece of cardboard printed two decades earlier. What civilization could have produced them?

    Because I grew up in Providence, a city overflowing with the detritus of the Industrial Revolution, there were old things everywhere – old libraries, old diners, old people. It was wonderful, and I haunted thrift shops and Salvation Armies looking for outdated items to read, wear, or listen to. One day I came across Elvis Presley’s “I Forgot to Remember to Forget” (25¢) – perhaps an early signpost on the way to a history career?

    In such an environment, liking history seemed a foregone conclusion. There is a rule in New England that all grade schools are required to take field trips to Plimoth Plantation and Sturbridge Village, where reenactors speak in fake English accents about crop rotation. In spite of that, I found the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries fascinating, and began what I suppose was my own form of reenactment, studying US history in school, college and beyond. Over time, I gradually began to like the 19th and 20th centuries too, and I now find myself in the frustrating position of finding everything that has ever happened to be of interest.

    For that reason, it is satisfying to now be the director of a research institution, responding to eternally new and different requests from a global community of scholars. The JCB is unusually comprehensive in its scope, covering the entire hemisphere from Columbus to about 1825, so there is no shortage of topics to think about. While I’m glad to be back in my hometown, I’m also grateful that I was able to work at different times in completely different environments, including a huge university (Harvard), a tiny college (Washington College) and a place that was not either (the Clinton White House). But that’s quite a long anecdote in itself. Perhaps I’ll save that one for HNN’s feature on Old Historians – I’m getting close to eligibility.

    Quotes

    By Ted Widmer

  • “What exactly was Young America? I hope I have clarified a widely misunderstood phenomenon. Young America was several things at almost the same time; a literary clique in the 1840s, a political junto in the early 1850s, and an expansive attitude prevalent afterward. These manifestations were essentially distinct from one Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York Cityn JPG another, except for the ubiquitous presence of John O’Sullivan, always straining after novelty and excitement. If nothing else, I hope this study has reestablished the importance of this actor, both central and evanescent, in the cultural politics of the antebellum scene….John O’Sullivan discovered this pretended destiny, and then discovered more slowly the harsher destiny he had also ushered in. How could it be otherwise? No one of his generation had more invested in the outcome, and few paid as high a price for destiny’s manifestation. But for all his bombast and backsliding, his early idealism still holds out the possibility of something better for “the Great Nation of Futurity,” always just a little bit ahead of the present tense. It is difficult, then as now, to separate “America” from the United States, and one generation from another. Yet it is still exciting to strive for “new history,” as O’Sullivan did in 1837, and countless others have done since, knowing they will end up as old history when all is said and done. Edward L. Widmer in “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • Martin Van Buren had always cared about the future – he boasted in his inaugural that he was the first president born after independence, and insisted that “I belong to a later age.” In certain ways, he had brought Martin Van Buren JPG the future into existence, removing the old-fashioned politicians who failed to get it, and helping America grow from infancy into something like adolescence – a perfect word to convey the turbulent mood swings, lingering pustules of animosity, and general bad hair of the Van Buren era.He deserves to be reconnected to that future – to us. Not falsely praised – he would not want that. Well, all right, he would. Rather, Van Buren’s life should be honestly reexamined for the truths of his own time and ours. A grand total of six American communities were named after him, presumably during his brief moment in the sun, in Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Missouri, and Ohio [ck Iowa, Michigan, Tenn.]. Their combined population adds up to about 10,000 people, far more than have ever read a book about him. After all that he lived through, he deserves more. Perhaps this profile will begin the process of explaining him more fully, expanding upon the effort he began alongside the Adriatic, with the sirens singing their entreaties, and Clio whispering in his ear. – Edward L. Widmer in “Martin Van Buren”About Ted Widmer
  • Young America brings to life an unwritten chapter in post-Jacksonian America. Edward L. Widmer explores the fascinating area where politics, literature, and ideology conspire and collide, and he restores to their proper place a striking cast of writers, polemicists, and rogues. This is a book for all aficionados of American history.” — Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. reviewing “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City is an indispensable, masterful new contribution to nineteenth-century US historiography. By detailing the controversial role the manic rhetorician John O’Sullivan played in both launching the incomparable Democratic Review and promulgating the gospel of Manifest Destiny, Edward L. Widmer has recaptured the halcyon days of the Jackson era with vivid precision.” — Douglas Brinkley reviewing “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • “Young America is an important, wide-ranging, and fascinating book. With wit, good sense, and lively prose, Edward L. Widmer recovers the social energy and cultural excitement of New York in the 1840s, when a generation of politico-literary intellectuals, as Emerson disdainfully called them, associated themselves with real politics and serious art. Held together by John O’Sullivan, the bigger-than-life editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review , Young America sustained a robust discussion of political and cultural democracy, at once nationalist and metropolitan, that gave intellectual significance to the Democratic Party even as it provided a sustaining and lively literary community for both canonical and forgotten writers. What Widmer describes is the first instance of a modern social type, the literary intellectual committed to democratic politics.” — Thomas Bender, Dean for the Humanities and Professor of History, New York University reviewing “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • “Widmer’s book offers the finest account to date of the culture and politics of New York in the explosive 1830s and 1840s. With literary grace and analytical gusto, he guides us through the writings and relationships of the most important intellectuals of the day. Along the way we are compelled to rethink the meanings of democracy, both in that time and our own.”– Lou Masur, Professor of History, City College of New York reviewing “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • “Edward L. Widmer has written a winning and utterly invigorating book that rescues Young America from its own self-destruction, brilliantly restoring its standing amid the pre-eminent political and cultural developments of the ante-bellum period….it is a rare author whose skill as a stylist so complements the able orators and writers he brings to light.” — Times Literary Supplement reviewing “Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City”
  • “Fortunately, this Rodney Dangerfield of presidents has landed a splendid biographer. In remarkably few pages, Ted Widmer, director of a research center at Washington College in Maryland, rescues Van Buren from what E. P. Thompson once termed ”the enormous condescension of posterity,” by subsuming a failed presidency within a more momentous career. Widmer deftly explains how the pioneering party boss built a formidable machine, using the trick bag of personal contacts and legislative reforms perfected by Lyndon Johnson over a century later. Van Buren grasped that the political future lay more with leaders from booming New York — the wealthiest, most populous, most ethnically diverse state in the nation — than with the grandees of Virginia and Massachusetts who had been in charge since the days of the Continental Congress…. Van Buren, as Widmer wisely concludes, was one of those “not-quite-heroic” figures without whom no democracy would operate for long. He didn’t achieve greatness, but he set a great insight in spin: without vibrant opposition parties, self-government becomes a mockery of its ideals. For that alone, Little Van deserves to be remembered as a big man indeed. — Michael Kazin reviewing “Martin Van Buren” in the NYT
  • “Clinton administration speechwriter Widmer sparks his assessment of the eighth president with the contemporary allusions, color, and humor of a good speech. Van Buren had a tough, undistinguished single term (1837-41). The first great U.S. depression hit days after he succeeded his mentor, Andrew Jackson, and he declined to deal with slavery, which became an elephant-in-the-bedroom issue during his administration. His finest achievements preceded and followed his presidency. After John Quincy Adams’ 1824 selection as president by the House of Representatives despite Jackson’s winning a plurality of the vote, Van Buren, a consummate schmoozer and deal maker, built the Democratic Party, mollifying the slave-holding South to do so. In 1848, however, he led the antislavery Free Soil ticket, at the risk of destroying the party he had created. Further endearing him, Van Buren was the first rags-to-riches president and the first (of two; the other is Kennedy) lacking Anglo-Saxon forebears. Contra Widmer, however, he didn’t enjoy the third-longest postpresidency, after Hoover and Carter, but the fifth, after Adams I and Ford, as well. — Ray Olson, American Library Association reviewing “Martin Van Buren”
  • “Great guy. Good teacher. Always interested in what we have you say.”… “Cool guy! I really enjoyed my American Studies course with him and having him as my thesis advisor. And he likes rock and roll!”… “Flexible teacher and very knowledgeable about American history. He’s a bit soft spoken, but he’s always got something good to say.”… “Widmer’s a great guy and was very passionate about 18th century America and George Washington.” — Anonymous Students
  • Posted on Sunday, January 6, 2008 at 7:36 PM

    On This Day in History…. January 4, 1896: Utah is admitted as the 45th State of the Union

    By Bonnie Goodman, HNN, 1-1-08

    Ms. Goodman is the Editor / Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University. She blogs at History Musings

    On this day in history…. January 4, 1893 US President Benjamin Harrison granted amnesty to those who committed Mormon polygamy, and on January 4, 1896, Utah was admitted as the 45th state.

    First & Second Attempt

    Utah’s long quest for statehood was finally officially granted in 1896. It was a long struggle for Utah’s Mormons to convince the U.S. federal government that their territory should be admitted to statehood. From the first attempt at statehood in 1849-50, the major point of contention was the Mormon’s embrace of polygamy. The Mormons’ second attempt at statehood, was simultaneous with the Republican Party’s first presidential campaign in 1856. Republican opposition to polygamy was akin to its opposition to slavery; both were condemned in the party platform as the “twin relics of barbarism.” According to recent historical scholarship the number one reason that it took Utah nearly fifty years to be admitted to the Union was because of the practice of polygamy. As historian Joan Smith Iversen writes, “Whereas Mormon historians once held that polygamy was only a diversionary issue raised by anti-Mormons who really opposed the power of the LDS church, recent interpretations by [Edward Leo] Lyman and historian Jan Shipps have found the polygamy issue to be critical to the anti-Mormon struggles.” (Iversen, 585)

    In 1850, Congress refused the first request for statehood for a prosposed state named Deseret based on the lack of the requisite number of eligible voters and the huge size of the state. Instead, President Millard Fillmore signed into law on September 9, 1850 the bill creating the Utah Territory with a new border, an initial step on the path to statehood. Damaging the prospects of the Mormons was the admission after repeated denials that one of the church’s religious principles was patriarchal (plural) marriage. It was disclosed that leading male members of the church were encouraged to marry more than one wife. The announcement elicited a negative response from the general American public, and political opposition from the federal government to all Mormon requests for Utah statehood. The government made it known to the Mormons that as long polygamy was condoned and practiced in Utah, statehood would not be granted.

    Third & Forth Attempt

    The Federal government also took steps to force the Mormons to abandon polygamy. In 1862 during the third failed attempt for statehood Congress was considering legislation to prohibit plural marriage. The Morrill Anti-bigamy Act banned polygamy and dissolved the Mormon Church. It was never effectively enforced, but Congress refused to grant an 1867 request to repeal it.

    In 1872 there was a forth attempt at statehood that included a ratified constitution presented to Congress. The Mormon majority was still insisting on calling the new state Deseret, even after the area was named the Utah territory. Congress again said no.

    The anti-polygamy crusade heated up. In 1874 Congress passed the Poland Act, which established district courts in Utah, making it easier to prosecute polygamists. In 1879 in the Supreme Court case Reynolds v. United States, Chief Justice Waite ruled that Mormon polygamy was “disruptive of peace and good order, threatening the foundations of the country,” therefore upholding the Morrill Act. (Iversen, 588) However, the crusade did not stop there. The Anti-Polygamy Society of Salt Lake City was established a year later in April 1880, when the women members of the group sent a petition to first lady Lucy Hayes requesting help to save the wives of polygamist husbands. The group, which changed its name in August 1880 to the Woman’s National Anti-Polygamy Society, pressed Congress to unseat polygamist George Q. Cannon, Utah’s territorial representative to Congress.

    Fifth Attempt

    In 1882 a mixed Mormon and non-Mormon constitutional convention requested for the fifth time that Utah be admitted as a state. This time the proposed constitution established Utah as “a republican form of government” and adopted the use of the name “Utah.” Congress again refused. As Larson writes, “Utah would not be admitted without complete divorcement of church and state and abolition of plural marriage.” (Poll, 258) In 1882 a law was passed criminalizing polygamy.

    Sixth Attempt

    When the Democrat Grover Cleveland was elected President, the Mormons hoped that statehood could finally be pushed through, since the Democrats had always been more supportive, while the Republicans pushed for anti-polygamy legislation. But two years later the U.S. Senate passed the Edmunds-Tucker bill, which would force the LDS Church to forfeit property in excess of $50,000, and would abolish woman’s suffrage in the territory if polygamy continued. In February 1887, the bill passed both houses and Cleveland allowed it to take effect without his signature.

    Still Cleveland tried to ease tensions in the manner in which he filled Utah territorial positions. Church emissaries developed an understanding with the President and some of his closest advisors, including Solicitor General George A. Jenks.

    In their sixth attempt at statehood in 1887, the Utahns included a constitutional clause prohibiting polygamy (Jenks wrote it). Mormon Church leaders thought it was better to control the polygamy situation themselves, and believed the constitutional wording was enough of a goodwill gesture. Still, the Church hierarchy would not give up polygamy as a tenet and practice. Congress doubted that the Utah constitutional amendment against polygamy would be enforced, and denied statehood.

    The Woodruff Manifesto

    The denial showed that the Church had to do something to something to show the Mormons would end polygamist marriages. The Church attempted several goodwill gestures in 1889, first withholding the authority to perform the polygamist marriages and then razing the Endowment House on Temple Square, where many polygamous unions had been performed. This was still not enough; the Church had to make a more formal declaration against the practice, especially after the introduction of the Cullom-Struble Bill, which would have denied the vote even to non-polygamous Mormons. Church representatives sought intervention from the Secretary of State James G. Blaine, who had Republican support from Utah. According to Larson and Poll, Blaine “promise[ed] to halt congressional action on Mormon disfranchisement if the church ‘got into line.’ ” (Poll, 388) He held off the passage of the bill as long as the Church would ban polygamy.

    The backlash from Washington forced the President of the Mormon Church, Wilford Woodruff, to finally relent. The official proclamation, known as the Woodruff Manifesto (September 24, 1890), declared that Endowment House had been razed and denied that polygamous marriages had been performed in 1889. The manifesto concluded, “and now, I publicly declare that my advice to the Latter-day Saints is to refrain from conducting any marriage forbidden by the law of the land.” (Poll, 372)

    The Secretary of the Interior, John W. Noble, did not accept the manifesto as authoritative “without its acceptance by the [church] conference.” On October 6, 1890, the Mormons gathered and unanimously approved the manifesto. The historian Howard R. Lamar has called the move “the policy of superior virtue and patriotic conformity.” (Poll, 387) Washington remained cautious about the manifesto, and President Benjamin Harrison still did not believe Utah should be admitted as a state. But the church’s action finally persuaded the territorial governor, a zealous anti-polygamy crusader, that Utah deserved statehood.

    The Home Stretch

    There remained one issue that Washington wanted resolved before Utah’s petition could be accepted; the people had to establish branches of the two national political parties. Until that point the political parties were aligned with religious beliefs; the Peoples party was Mormon; the Liberal party was non-Mormon. The system blurred the division of state and church that characterized the American political system, and was the last barrier to statehood. As the historians Gustive O. Larson and Richard D. Poll write: “As long as the People’s Party functioned as the political arm of the Mormon Church, the church-state struggle was certain to continue, with the Liberal Party blocking every approach to membership in the Union. With the ‘twin relic’ out of the way, it became increasingly clear to moderates in both parties that the road out of territorial subordination must be by way of national political affiliations.” (Poll, 387)

    In response Utah’s population, which was still 90 percent Mormon, decided to adopt the national political parties. Although traditionally the Utah territory was more inclined to side with the Democratic Party, while Cleveland had been in power the party had not reached out enough to the Mormons. It seemed more beneficial to side with the Republicans, especially since they were in power. Still, many of the Mormon members supported the Democrats. Apostle Abraham H. Cannon wrote in his journal on June 9, 1891 that he feared the support for Democrats was a hindrance to statehood: “The danger of our people all becoming Democrats . . . is feared, and the results of such a course would doubtless prove disastrous to us.” He continued, “It is felt that efforts should be made to instruct our people in Republicanism and thus win them to that party.” (Poll, 389)

    To secure statehood the Church dissolved the People’s Party on June 10, 1891 and established a two party system by arbitrarily dividing the membership equally into two groups. The dissolution of the People’s Party caused President Cleveland to send a telegram of “Congratulations to the Democracy of this Territory on their organization.”

    After the Mormon Church abolished polygamy and the People’s Party, the leaders tried to protect those Mormons who had been prosecuted for polygamy by requesting amnesty from President Harrison. On December 21, 1891, the Church leaders submitted a formal petition for amnesty endorsed by Governor Arthur L. Thomas and Chief Justice Zane. President Harrison was reluctant to grant it, since it was an election year and would alienate voters. But after he lost the election, he agreed to the grant of amnesty. Republican leaders thought it would vindicate the party since they promised to help the Mormons gain statehood, and Utah’s admission as a state had political significance. On January 4, 1893, Harrison granted amnesty and a pardon “to all persons liable . . . by reason of unlawful cohabitation . . . who since November 1, 1890, have abstained from unlawful cohabitation.” In July the Utah Commission proclaimed that “amnestied polygamists be allowed to vote.” (Poll, 392)

    Utah was in the home stretch to finally become a state. On July 16, 1894, President Grover Cleveland, in his second term, granted a pardon to all, restoring civil rights to all former polygamists who had been disenfranchised. At the same time he signed the Enabling Act which Congress passed delineating the final steps required to advance to statehood. As the New York Times reported at the time, “The signing of the Utah Bill for Statehood closes one of the most remarkable contests in the history of American politics. The Territory has been an applicant for statehood and really eligible in population and wealth for many years….The struggle over polygamy and the Mormon Church has deferred it admission until the present time.” (NYT, 7-18-1894)

    All that remained was to hold a constitutional convention. On November 6, 1894, voters elected 107 delegates to the convention in Salt Lake City; 77 were Mormons and 30 were polygamists. On March 4, 1895, the delegates met to frame the new state’s constitution, which included this clause: “polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited.” (Utah Constitution) The constitution was completed on May 6, 1895, signed on May 8, and ratified at the general election on November 5, 1895.

    Finally, on January 4, 1896, Utah was admitted as the 45th state in the Union. Its entry was based on the Mormon Church’s renunciation of polygamy. Most of those outside the church believed the issue of polygamy was put to rest, but some critics remained suspicious that many of the plural marriages that were performed before 1890, were not in fact aborted. Still B. Carmon Hardy writes, “To most outside the church, however, Mormonism appeared honestly and forever to have put its greatest evil away. The [Woodruff] Manifesto had succeeded in its intent and Utah had won its star in the flag.” (p. 153) Although Utah was admitted into the union over a hundred years ago the polygamist past of the Mormons still haunts them, as Mitt Romney has discovered in his quest for the presidency.

    Sources and further reading:

    Constitution of the State of Utah

    Sarah Barringer Gordon, The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth Century America, (UNC Press, 2002).

    B. Carmon Hardy, Solemn Covenant: The Mormon Polygamous Passage, (University of Illinois Press, 1992).

    Joan Smyth Iversen, “A Debate on the American Home: The Antipolygamy Controversy, 1880-1890,” Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Apr., 1991), pp. 585-602.

    Gustive O. Larsen, The Americanization of Utah for Statehood, (Huntington Library, 1971).

    Edward Leo Lyman, Political Deliverance: The Mormon Quest for Utah Statehood, (University of Illinois Press, 1986).

    Richard D. Poll, et al. eds., Utah’s History, (Utah State University Press), 1989.

    Jonathan D. Sarna, ed., Minority Faiths and the American Protestant Mainstream, (University of Illinois Press, 1997).

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