On This Day in History… August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr gives his “I Have a Dream” Speech

On this day in history… August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr gives his “I have a dream speech” at the Lincoln Memorial….

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. delivering his I have a dream speech

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. delivering his “I have a dream” speech

Martin Luther King’s Speech: ‘I Have a Dream’ – The Full Text

PHOTO: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech on this day on Aug. 28, 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial for the March on Washington, Washington, DC.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech on this day on Aug. 28, 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial for the March on Washington, Washington, DC. (Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
By MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
Aug. 28, 1963

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.

But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition.

In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.

We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.

I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor’s lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with a new meaning, “My country, ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.”

On This Day in History… August 28, 1968: Police and Protesters clash at the DNC

Documentary on the Chicago ’68 Riots – by Bonnie K. Goodman

By Bonnie Goodman, HNN, 9-9-08

Ms. Goodman is the Editor / Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University. She blogs at History Musings

On This Day in History… August 28, 1968: Police and anti-Vietnam War demonstrators clash at Chicago’s Democratic National Convention…

Sources and Further Reading:

James E. Campbell, The American Campaign: U.S. Presidential Campaigns and the National Vote, (Texas A&M University Press, 2000)

Maurice Isserman, Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s,
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Frank Kusch, Battleground Chicago: The Police and the 1968 Democratic National Convention, (Westport, CT. Praeger, 2004).

Mark Kurlansky, 1968: The Year That Rocked the World, (Random House, Inc., 2005).

Jon Wiener, Tom Hayden, Jules Feiffer, Conspiracy in the Streets: The Extraordinary Trial of the Chicago Eight, (New Press, 2006).

History Buzz: August 2008

History Buzz

By Bonnie K. Goodman

Ms. Goodman is the Editor/Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University.

August 25, 2008

CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

  • Campaign 2008 Highlights: : A complete roundup of what Historians are saying about the campaign this week.
  • Sean Wilentz A Liberal’s Lament To win, Obama must convince the country that he is a man of substance, not just style. History suggests this won’t be easy: “But will Obama, amid the pulsating theatrics, also attempt the less glamorous and more difficult task of explaining specifically where he wants to move the country, and how he proposes to move it, above and beyond reciting his policy positions?” Wilentz asks. “History, as well as recent public-opinion polls, suggests that he badly needs to do so.” – Newsweek, 8-23-08
  • Laura McCall on “The first time around: A look at the 1908 DNC”: “Everybody in 1908 thought Denver was kind of a cow town,” said Denver historian Dr. Laura McCall. “Denver wanted to give an impression that it was sophisticated and had culture. I think there’s still something of an inferiority complex here that is totally undeserved.” – 9NEWS.com, CO, 8-25-08
CHICAGO 1968:

Chicago 1968: 40 years Later:

  • Essay: Norman Mailer’s Great American Meltdown – NYT, 8-24-08
  • Jeremi Suri on “Inouye’s 1968 speech was look at future”: Jeremi Suri, a history professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said the 1968 convention showed how much the Democratic Party, split by race and the Vietnam War, was changing. Inouye had endorsed Humphrey and was aligned with the establishment, but Suri said Inouye — as a symbol — did not represent the Democratic political machine or the majority of delegates inside the International Amphitheatre. “It didn’t tell people where the party was then. It told them where the party was going,” said Suri, author of the book “Power and Protest: Global Revolution and the Rise of Detente,” which examined the 1960s. – Honolulu Advertiser, 8-25-08
  • Michael Kazin on “Inouye’s 1968 speech was look at future”: Michael Kazin, a history professor at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., who was arrested at the Chicago protests, said Inouye’s speech did not have much impact on those outside the convention. “I don’t think he was all that visible,” he said. “Clearly, he was a symbol of a nonwhite Democrat who had been a war hero despite what had happened to Japanese-Americans during the war.” The bitterness over Humphrey’s nomination in 1968 led the party to give more weight to the primary system, Kazin said, and opened up the nomination process to politicians from outside the establishment like Jimmy Carter — a populist Georgia governor — in 1976 and Obama this year. “If you want to look at one event that made it quite public that the Democratic Party was not the same party which had won all these elections and really controlled the political dialogue, this is the event to look to,” said Kazin, the co-author of “America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s.” – Honolulu Advertiser, 8-25-08
BIGGEST STORIES:

BIGGEST STORIES: LBJ Centenniel

  • Robert Caro speaks of the LBJ centennial: “I want to remember him in his days of just undiluted glory,” says Caro, a Pulitzer Prize winner currently in the middle of his fourth and final Johnson volume, which will cover his vice presidency and presidency…. “You listen to the ones who were concerned with what Lyndon Johnson did on the domestic side, and you say, ‘There never was a surer touch. There never was more of an understanding of what exactly needed to be done to get this legislation passed,’” Caro says. “Then you turn to Vietnam, reading the minutes of the meetings, talking to people. You have a sense of a man who didn’t know what to do. … If I write this book correctly, that contrast will emerge.”…. “I see Barack Obama as the apex of the Lyndon Johnson legacy,” Caro believes, saying that his presumed nomination would not have been possible without the civil rights legislation that enabled millions of blacks to vote. “But you can’t talk about Iraq without talking about Vietnam,” he adds. “You can’t leave that out. His presidency did not end in triumph.” AP, 8-24-08
  • Michael Beschloss on “Robert Caro speaks of the LBJ centennial”: “Every generation pays very close attention to the major controversies of the time and when Johnson left office, in 1969, Vietnam was still raging and a lot of Americans were furious at Johnson,” Beschloss says. “They weren’t thinking about a lot of things they had liked about him, like civil rights. And in 1969 people were not as aware as historians are now of the efforts he made to get the country out of the war.” – AP, 8-24-08
HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

    On This Day in History….

  • 25/08/1485 – Battle at Bosworth Fields: Henry Tudor beats king Richard III
  • 25/08/1609 – Galileo demonstrates his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers
  • 25/08/1718 – Hundreds of French colonists arrive in Louisiana; New Orleans was founded by French settlers and named after the Duke of Orleans.
  • 25/08/1768 – Capt James Cook departs from Plymouth with Endeavour to Pacific Ocean
  • 25/08/1814 – British forces destroy Library of Congress, containing 3,000 books
  • 25/08/1829 – Pres Jackson makes an offer to buy Texas, but Mexican govt refuses
  • 25/08/1862 – Secretary of War authorizes Gen Rufus Saxton to arm 5,000 slaves
  • 25/08/1915 – Hurricane kills 275 in Galveston, Texas with $50 million damage
  • 25/08/1944 – Paris was liberated from Nazi occupation by Allied forces.
  • 25/08/1945 – Jewish immigrants are permitted to leave Mauritius for Palestine
  • 26/08/1846 – W A Bartlett appointed 1st US mayor of Yerba Buena (SF)
  • 26/08/1874 – 16 blacks lynched in Tennessee
  • 26/08/1920 – 19th amendment passes-women’s suffrage granted
  • 26/08/1942 – 7,000 Jews are rounded up in Vichy-France
  • 26/08/1945 – Japanese diplomats board Missouri to receive instructions on Japan’s surrender at the end of WW II
  • 26/08/1964 – LBJ nominated at Democratic convention in Atlantic City, NJ
  • 27/08/1667 – Earliest recorded hurricane in US (Jamestown Virginia)
  • 27/08/1928 – Kellogg-Briand Pact, where 60 nations agree to outlaw war
  • 28/08/0476 – West Roman Empire formally disbands/emperor Romulus August ousted
  • 28/08/1565 – Oldest city in the US, St Augustine Fla, established
  • 28/08/1609 – Henry Hudson, discovers and explores Delaware Bay
  • 28/08/1655 – New Amsterdam and Peter Stuyvesant bars Jews from military service
  • 28/08/1862 – Battle of Groveton, VA (Manassas Plains) [->AUG 19] US7000 CS7000
  • 28/08/1862 – Belle Boyd released from Old Capital Prison in Washington, DC
  • 28/08/1884 – 1st known photograph of a tornado is made near Howard SD
  • 28/08/1916 – Italy declares war against Germany during WW I
  • 28/08/1944 – Last German troops in Marseille surrendered and Toulon cleared
  • 28/08/1963 – Martin Luther King Jr’s “I have a dream speech” at Lincoln Memorial
  • 28/08/1968 – Police and anti-war demonstrators clash at Chicago’s Dem Nationall Convention
  • 28/08/2005 – Hurricane Katrina hammers the south eastern United States, especially New Orleans, Louisiana, and coastal Mississippi
  • 29/08/1640 – English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland
  • 29/08/1756 – England and France meet in war
  • 29/08/1786 – Shay’s Rebellion in Springfield, Mass
  • 29/08/1862 – Battle of Bull Run, VA (Manassas, Gainesville, Bristoe Station)
  • 29/08/1916 – US Congress accept Jones Act: Philippines independence
  • 29/08/1939 – Chaim Weizmann informs England that Palestine Jews will fight in WW II
  • 29/08/1944 – 15,000 American troops liberating Paris march down Champs Elysees
  • 29/08/1945 – Gen MacArthur named Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan
  • 29/08/1957 – Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • 29/08/1968 – Democratics nominate Hubert H Humphrey for president (Chicago)
  • 30/08/1563 – Jewish community of Neutitschlin Moravia expelled
  • 30/08/1682 – William Penn left England to sail to New World
  • 30/08/1776 – US army evacuates Long Island/falls back to Manhattan, NYC
  • 30/08/1781 – French fleet of 24 ships under Comte de Grasse defeat British under Admiral Graves at battle of Chesapeake Capes in Revolutionary War
  • 30/08/1843 – 1st blacks participation in natl political convention (Liberty Party)
  • 30/08/1854 – John Fremont issues proclamation freeing slaves of Missouri rebels
  • 30/08/1862 – Battle of 2nd Manassas-Pope defeated by Lee-Battle of Richmond, KY
  • 30/08/1862 – Battle of Altamont-Confederates beat Union forces in Tennessee
  • 30/08/1862 – 2nd Battle of Bull Run – Confederates beat Union
  • 30/08/1945 – Gen MacArthur lands in Japan
  • 30/08/1967 – US Senate confirm Thurgood Marshall as 1st black justice
  • 31/08/1850 – Calif pioneers organized at Montgomery and Clay Streets
  • 31/08/1864 – Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties
  • 31/08/1907 – England, Russia and France form Triple Entente
  • 31/08/1914 – Germany defeats Russia (battle at Tannenberg/30,000 Russians die)
  • 31/08/1935 – FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents
  • 31/08/1963 – “Hot line” between Moscow-Washington, DC installed
IN THE NEWS:

IN THE NEWS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

  • Phillip N. Raccine: Letters tell first-hand accounts of Southern life Gentlemen Merchants : A Charleston Family’s Odyssey, 1828-1870North Florida NewsDaily, FL, 8-25-08
  • Kenneth M. Pollack: War and Peace A PATH OUT OF THE DESERT A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle EastNYT, 8-24-08
  • Kenneth M. Pollack: A PATH OUT OF THE DESERT A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle East, First Chapter – NYT, 8-24-08
  • Brenda Wineapple: Emily’s Tryst WHITE HEAT The Friendship of Emily Dickinson and Thomas Wentworth HigginsonNYT, 8-24-08
  • Quil Lawrence: Friends in Unfriendly Places INVISIBLE NATION How the Kurds’ Quest for Statehood Is Shaping Iraq and the Middle EastNYT, 8-24-08
  • Tom Gjelten: Rum and Revolution How the Bacardi family mixed business and politics to build a liquor empire BACARDI AND THE LONG FIGHT FOR CUBA The Biography of a Cause WaPo, 8-24-08
  • Andrew Meier: Liquidated The grisly fate of a true believer THE LOST SPY An American in Stalin’s Secret ServiceWaPo, 8-24-08
  • Simon Baatz: Jonathan Yardley on ‘For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb, and the Murder That Shocked Chicago’ This infamous crime was committed by teenagers, killing for kicks FOR THE THRILL OF IT Leopold, Loeb and the Murder That Shocked ChicagoWaPo, 8-24-08
  • Robert Dallek: Historian to offer short bio on Harry S Truman – St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8-19-08
OP-EDs:

OP-EDs & LETTERS :

BLOGS:

BLOGS:

PROFILED:

PROFILED:

INTERVIEWS:

INTERVIEWS:

FEATURES:

FEATURES:

  • Dorothy West: House Proud in Historic Enclave – NYT, 8-18-08
QUOTED:

QUOTED:

  • Don Wright on “Panel reflects on Iraq transition”: “That was our job to make sense of,” said Don Wright, a historian at the Army Combat Studies Institute at Fort Leavenworth, who co-authored the book. The book was not intended to place blame. “Explain what happened but let the reader decide,” Wright said. Download the book On Point II, Transition to the New CampaignLawrence Journal World, KS, 8-26-08
HONORED / AWARDED / APPOINTED:

HONORED, AWARDED, APPOINTED:

SPOTTED:

SPOTTED:

  • Dane Kennedy & Wm. Roger Lewis: Deliver lectures on decolonization at the Library of Congress – AHA Blog, 8-18-08
  • Andrew Bacevich: Interviewed by Bill Moyers – PBS, 8-15-08
CALENDAR:

CALENDAR:

  • September 4, 2008: Nautical Archaeologist and Historian David C. Switzer will speak at Portland Harbor Museum on Thursday, September 4, 2008, at 7:00 p.m. Dr. Switzer’s illustrated talk is entitled, “The Submarine O-9: Lost and Found in the Gulf of Maine in 1941.” – MaineToday.com, ME, 8-16-08
  • September 6, 2008: Morristown New Jersey Fall museum programs begin with spooky history – Dailyrecord.com, NJ, 8-16-08
  • September 15, 2008: Douglas Brinkley at Open VISIONS Forum (OVF) season at Fairfield University. OVF, the lecture series presented by University College at Fairfield University, which presents political pundits, historians, actresses and activists with diverse, provocative and lively views of current and historical topics, will start out with historian Douglas Brinkley on Sept. 15 at 8 p.m. – Redding Pilot, CT, 8-2-08
ON TV:

    ON TV: History Listings This Week

  • Ken Burns: PBS to air his national parks series next year – AP, 7-13-08
  • History Channel: “Secret Access: Air Force One,” Monday, August 25, @ 8pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Prehistoric Monsters Revealed,” Tuesday, August 26, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Ancient Ink,” Wednesday, August 27, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: Deep Sea Killers TV14 ,” Wednesday, August 27, @ 10pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “JFK: A Presidency Revealed,” Thursday, August 28, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “The Presidents: 1945-1977,” Thursday, August 28, @ 5pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “The Presidents: 1977-Present,” Thursday, August 28, @ 6pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Crime Wave: 18 Months of Mayhem,” Friday, August 29, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Special: Katrina: American Catastrophe,” Friday, August 29, @ 4pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Cities Of The Underworld: Katrina,” Friday, August 29, @ 5pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Modern Marvels: Engineering Disasters: New Orleans,” Friday, August 29, @ 6pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Rome: Rise and Fall of an Empire: The First Barbarian War,” Friday, August 29, @ 10pm ET/PT
SELLING BIG (NYT):

SELLING BIG (NYT):

  • Jerome R. Corsi: THE OBAMA NATION #1 — (3 weeks on list) – 8-31-08
  • David Freddoso: THE CASE AGAINST BARACK OBAMA #6 — (2 weeks on list) – 8-31-08
  • Andrew Bacevich: THE LIMITS OF POWER #9 — (1 week on list) – 8-31-08
  • T. J. English: HAVANA NOCTURNE #14 — (4 weeks on list) – 8-31-08
FUTURE RELEASES:

FUTURE RELEASES:

  • Robert Dallek: Harry S. Truman (REV), September 2, 2008
  • Mary C. Henderson: The Story of 42nd Street: The Theatres, Shows, Characters, and Scandals of the World’s Most Notorious Street (First Edition), September 2, 2008
  • Paul Douglas Lockhart: The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army, September 9, 2008
  • Jeffry D. Wert: Cavalryman of the Lost Cause: A Biography of J. E. B. Stuart, September 23, 2008
  • Harold Holzer: Lincoln: President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Winter of Secession, 1860-1861, October 7, 2008
  • David Hackett Fischer: Champlain’s Dream, October 14, 2008
  • Carlo D’Este: Warlord: A Life of Winston Churchill at War, 1874-1945, November 11, 2008
DEPARTED:

DEPARTED:

Posted on Monday, August 25, 2008 at 9:14 PM

August 18, 2008

CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

BIGGEST STORIES:

BIGGEST STORIES:

HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

    On This Day in History….

  • 08-18-1564 – Spanish King Philip II joins Council of Trente
  • 08-18-1864 – Petersburg Campaign-Battle of Weldon Railroad day 1 of 3 days
  • 08-18-1914 – Pres Wilson issues “Proclamation of Neutrality”
  • 18-08=1920 – Tennessee ratifies 19th Amendment, guarantees women voting right
  • 08-18-1958 – TV game show scandal investigation starts
  • 08-19-1561 – Mary Queen of Scots arrives in Leith Scotland to assume throne after spending 13 years in France
  • 08-19-1692 – 5 women executed for witchcraft in Salem Mass
  • 08-19-1698 – Russian czar Peter the Great begins term
  • 08-19-1849 – NY Herald reports gold discovery in California
  • 08-19-1934 – Hitler elected Fuhrer (95.7% of German voters)
  • 08-19-1942 – 1st American offensive in Pacific in WW2, Guadalcanal, Solomon Is
  • 08-19-1942 – 4,000 Canadian and British soldiers killed raiding Dieppe, France
  • 08-19-1955 – Hurricane Diane kills 200 and 1st billion $ damage storm (N.E. US)
  • 08-19-1958 – NAACP Youth Council begin sit-ins at Oklahoma City Lunch counters
  • 08-19-1960 – Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 3 mice into orbit (later recovered alive)
  • 08-19-1965 – Auschwitz trials end with 6 life sentences
  • 08-19-1984 – Republican convention in Houston nominates Ronald Reagan for pres
  • 08-19-1988 – Iran-Iraq begin a cease-fire in their 8-year-old war (11 PM EDT)
  • 08-20-1619 – 1st Black slaves brought by Dutch to colony of Jamestown Virginia
  • 08-20-1781 – George Washington begins to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis
  • 08-20-1864 – 8th/last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run Va (about 3900 casualties)
  • 08-20-1865 – Pres Johnson proclaims an end to “insurrection” in Tx
  • 08-20-1866 – Pres Andrew Johnson formally declares Civil War over
  • 08-20-1896 – Dial telephone patented
  • 08-20-1910 – US supported opposition brings down Madriz in Nicaragua
  • 08-20-1918 – Britain opens offensive on Western front during WW I
  • 08-20-1974 – Pres Gerald Ford, assumes office after Richard Nixon’s resignation
  • 08-21-1321 – 160 Jews of Chincon France, burned at stake
  • 08-21-1831 – Nat Turner slave revolt kills 55 (Southampton County, Virginia)
  • 08-21-1858 – 1st Lincoln-Douglas debate (Illinois)
  • 08-21-1863 – Raid at Lawrence KS by William Quantrill
  • 08-21-1864 – Battle of Summit Point, VA
  • 08-21-1945 – Pres Truman ends Lend-Lease program
  • 08-22-0565 – St Columba reported seeing monster in Loch Ness
  • 08-22-1138 – English defeated Scots at Cowton Moor Banners of various saints were carried into battle which led to being called Battle of the Standard
  • 08-22-1454 – Jews are expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus
  • 08-22-1642 – Civil War in England began between Royalists and Parliament
  • 08-22-1654 – 1st Jewish immigrant to US, Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam
  • 08-22-1762 – 1st female (Ann Franklin) US newspaper editor, Newport RI, Mercury
  • 08-22-1791 – Haitian Slave Revolution begins under voodoo priest Boukman
  • 08-22-1846 – US annexes New Mexico
  • 08-22-1902 – Pres Teddy Roosevelt became 1st US chief executive to ride in a car
  • 08-22-1945 – Vietnam conflict begins as Ho Chi Minh leads a successful coup
  • 08-22-1956 – Pres Eisenhower and VP Nixon renominated by Rep convention in SF
  • 08-22-1975 – Assassination attempt on president Gerald Ford
  • 08-23-1833 – Britain abolishes slavery in colonies; 700,000 slaves freed
  • 08-23-1850 – 1st national women’s rights convention convenes in Worcester Mass
  • 08-23-1866 – Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
  • 08-23-1903 – 6th Zionist Congress, Theodor Herzl declares Jewish state
  • 08-23-1914 – Japan declares war on Germany in World War I
  • 08-23-1939 – Molotov-Ribbentrop pact: East Europe divided between Hitler and Stalin
  • 08-23-1942 – Battle of Stalingrad: 600 Luftwaffers bomb Stalingrad (40,000 die)
  • 08-23-1972 – Republican convention (Miami Beach, Fla) renominates VP Agnew but not unanimous-1 vote went to NBC newsman David Brinkley
  • 08-23-1978 – Iranian students occupies Iranian embassy at Wassenaar
  • 08-23-1990 – US begins call up of 46,000 reservists to the Persian Gulf
  • 08-24-0079 – Mt Vesuvius erupts, buries Pompeii and Herculaneum, 15,000 die
  • 08-24-0410 – Rome overrun by Visigoths, symbolized fall of Western Roman Empire
  • 08-24-1349 – Jews
  • 08-24-1349 – 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Plague, are killed in Mainz
  • 08-24-1891 – Thomas Edison patents motion picture camera
  • 08-24-1936 – FDR gives FBI authority to pursuit fascists and communists
  • 08-24-1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) goes into effect
  • 08-24-1954 – Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act, outlawing the Communist Party, at height of McCarthyism
  • 08-24-1991 – Gorbachev resigns as head of USSR Communist Party
IN THE NEWS:

IN THE NEWS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

  • G. Calvin Mackenzie and Robert Weisbrot: The ’60s: Once Upon an Optimistic Time THE LIBERAL HOUR Washington and the Politics of Change in the 1960sNYT, 8-13-08
  • G. Calvin Mackenzie and Robert Weisbrot: THE LIBERAL HOUR Washington and the Politics of Change in the 1960s, First Chapter – NYT, 8-13-08
  • Jerome R. Corsi: Book Attacking Obama Hopes to Repeat ’04 Anti-Kerry Feat The Obama NationNYT, 8-13-08
  • Jerome R. Corsi: The Obama Nation, First Chapter – NYT, 8-12-08
  • John Carlin: Entering the Scrum PLAYING THE ENEMY Nelson Mandela and the Game That Made a NationNYT, 8-15-08
  • Thomas Frank: What’s the Matter With Washington? THE WRECKING CREW How Conservatives Rule NYT, 8-15-08
  • Eunice Pollack: University of North Texas lecturer’s encyclopedia explores Jews’ role in modern American history – Dallas Morning News, 8-2-08
OP-EDs:

OP-EDs:

PROFILED:

PROFILED:

INTERVIEWS:

INTERVIEWS:

FEATURES:

FEATURES:

QUOTED:

QUOTED:

  • James Whiteside on “Pain, progress follow 1968′s “silent gesture heard around the world””: “The ’68 Olympics were a tableau of the cultural and political stresses of the era,” said James Whiteside, a history professor at UC Denver. “The year 1968 was the year of the youth revolution.” – Denver Post, 8-17-08
  • Melvyn Goldstein on “After the Games, Tibet”: “The Dalai Lama has taken the kind of courageous step that great political leaders make at crucial turning points in history,” said Melvyn Goldstein, a prominent historian of modern Tibet and a professor at Case Western Reserve University. “After more than 20 years of stalemate, the Dalai Lama, at great risk to his standing in the West and among Tibetans in exile, has unilaterally sent Beijing a clear signal that he is now ready to accept the kind of difficult compromises that are needed to resolve the conflict. For the first time in decades, reconciliation is now genuinely possible.” – NYT, 8-14-08
HONORED / AWARDED / APPOINTED:

HONORED, AWARDED, APPOINTED:

CALENDAR:

CALENDAR:

  • September 4, 2008: Nautical Archaeologist and Historian David C. Switzer will speak at Portland Harbor Museum on Thursday, September 4, 2008, at 7:00 p.m. Dr. Switzer’s illustrated talk is entitled, “The Submarine O-9: Lost and Found in the Gulf of Maine in 1941.” – MaineToday.com, ME, 8-16-08
  • September 6, 2008: Morristown New Jersey Fall museum programs begin with spooky history – Dailyrecord.com, NJ, 8-16-08
  • September 15, 2008: Douglas Brinkley at Open VISIONS Forum (OVF) season at Fairfield University. OVF, the lecture series presented by University College at Fairfield University, which presents political pundits, historians, actresses and activists with diverse, provocative and lively views of current and historical topics, will start out with historian Douglas Brinkley on Sept. 15 at 8 p.m. – Redding Pilot, CT, 8-2-08
ON TV:

    ON TV: History Listings This Week

  • Ken Burns: PBS to air his national parks series next year – AP, 7-13-08
  • C-Span2, BookTV: History A Magnificent Catastrophe: The Tumultuous Election of 1800, America’s First Presidential Campaign Author: Edward Larson – Sunday, August 17 @ 7:00pm ET – C-Span2, BookTV
  • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: T-Rex Hunter,” Sunday, August 17, @ 6pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Decoding The Past: Doomsday 2012: The End of Days,” Monday, August 18, @ 8pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Life After People,” Monday, August 18, @ 9pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “The Samurai,” Tuesday, August 19, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “1968 with Tom Brokaw,” Wednesday, August 20, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “MonsterQuest: Bigfoot in New York,” Wednesday, August 20, @ 9pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: Bloodiest Battle,” Wednesday, August 20, @ 10pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “The Dark Ages,” Thursday, August 21, @ 2pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Barbarians: Vikings,” Friday, August 22, @ 6pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Gangland: 06 – Kings of New York,” Friday, August 22, @ 8pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Last Stand of The 300,” Saturday, August 23, @ 8pm ET/PT
  • History Channel: “Rome: Engineering an Empire,” Saturday, August 23, @ 10pm ET/PT
SELLING BIG (NYT):

SELLING BIG (NYT):

  • Jerome R. Corsi: THE OBAMA NATION #1 — (2 weeks on list) – 8-24-08
  • David Freddoso: THE CASE AGAINST BARACK OBAMA #5 — (1 week on list) – 8-24-08
  • David Maraniss: ROME 1960 #35 – 8-24-08
FUTURE RELEASES:

FUTURE RELEASES:

  • Patrick Desbois: The Holocaust by Bullets, August 19, 2008
  • Robert Dallek: Harry S. Truman (REV), September 2, 2008
  • Mary C. Henderson: The Story of 42nd Street: The Theatres, Shows, Characters, and Scandals of the World’s Most Notorious Street (First Edition), September 2, 2008
  • Paul Douglas Lockhart: The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army, September 9, 2008
  • Jeffry D. Wert: Cavalryman of the Lost Cause: A Biography of J. E. B. Stuart, September 23, 2008
  • Harold Holzer: Lincoln: President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Winter of Secession, 1860-1861, October 7, 2008
  • David Hackett Fischer: Champlain’s Dream, October 14, 2008
  • Carlo D’Este: Warlord: A Life of Winston Churchill at War, 1874-1945, November 11, 2008
DEPARTED:

DEPARTED:

  • Obituaries Walter Hill Jr.: Scholar Opened Window Onto African American History – WaPo, 8-15-08
  • Dr. Peter J. Schmitt, longtime professor of history at Western Michigan University, died Aug. 6. He was 72 – WMU News, MI, 8-8-08

Posted on Sunday, August 17, 2008 at 8:10 PM

August 4 & 11, 2008

CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN 2008 WATCH:

BIGGEST STORIES:

BIGGEST STORIES:

  • Some of the biggest names in the field of Western history filed a lawsuit Thursday in U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., to stop the National Park Service from building a proposed expansion to the visitor center at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument – Jackson Hole Star Tribune, 8-2-08
HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

HNN STATS THIS WEEK:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY:

    On This Day in History….

  • 08-06-1787 – Constitutional Convention in Phila begans debate
  • 08-06-1806 – Holy Roman Empire ends; it was neither holy, Roman, nor an empire
  • 08-06-1815 – US flotilla ends piracy by Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli
  • 08-06-1945 – Hiroshima Peace Day-atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima by “Enola Gay”
  • 08-06-1965 – LBJ signs Voting Rights Act, guaranteeing voting rights for blacks
  • 08-06-1990 – UN Security Council votes 13-0 (2 abstensions Cuba and Yemen) to place economic sanctions against Iraq
  • 08-07-1782 – George Washington creates Order of Purple Heart
  • 08-07-1934 – US Court of Appeals upheld lower court ruling striking down govt’s attempt to ban controversial James Joyce novel “Ulysses”
  • 08-07-1942 – 1st American offensive in Pacific in WW2, Guadalcanal, Solomon Is
  • 08-07-1964 – US Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin resolution
  • 08-07-1990 – Desert Shield begins – US deploys troops to Saudi Arabia
  • 08-08-1864 – Red Cross forms in Geneva
  • 08-08-1876 – Thomas Edison patents mimeograph
  • 08-08-1890 – Daughters of American Revolution organizes
  • 08-08-1945 – USSR establishes a communist government in North Korea
  • 08-08-1945 – US, USSR, England and France sign Treaty of London
  • 08-08-1945 – Pres Harry S Truman signs UN Charter
  • 08-08-1953 – US and South Korea initial a mutual security pact
  • 08-08-1968 – Republican convention in Miami Beach nominates Nixon for pres
  • 08-08-1973 – VP Spiro T Agnew says reports he took kickbacks are “damned lies” from govt contracts in Maryland. He vowed not to resign
  • 08-08-1974 – Pres Richard M Nixon announces he’ll resign his office 12PM Aug 9
  • 08-09-1638 – Jonas Bronck of Holland becomes 1st European settler in Bronx
  • 08-09-1842 – US-Canada border defined by Webster-Ashburton Treaty
  • 08-09-1655 – Lord Protector Cromwell divides England into 11 districts
  • 08-09-1673 – Dutch recapture NY from English; regained by English in 1674
  • 08-09-1790 – Columbia returns to Boston after 3 year journey, 1st ship to carry US flag around the world
  • 08-09-1842 – US-Canada border defined by Webster-Ashburton Treaty
  • 08-09-1848 – Barnburners (anti-slavery) party merges with Free Soil Party nominateing Martin Van Buren for president
  • 08-09-1941 – Winston Churchill reaches Newfoundland for 1st talk with FDR
  • 08-09-1974 – Richard Nixon resigns presidency, VP Gerald Ford becomes 38th pres
  • 08-10-0070 – “2nd Temple” of Jews is set aflame (approx)
  • 08-10-1497 – John Cabot tells King Henry VII of his trip to “Asia”
  • 08-10-1831 – Former slave Nat Turner leads uprising against slavery
  • 08-10-1846 – Congress charters “nation’s attic,” Smithsonian Institution
  • 08-10-1941 – FDR and Churchill’s 2nd meeting at Placentia Newfoundland
  • 08-11-1924 – US presidential candidates make 1st film for bio-scoop news
  • 08-11-1941 – FDR and PM Winston Churchill sign Atlantic Charter
  • 08-12-1676 – 1st war between American colonists and Indians ends in New England
  • 08-12-1867 – Pres A Johnson defies Congress suspending Sec of War Edwin Stanton
  • 08-12-1898 – Hawaii formally annexed to US
  • 08-12-1898 – Peace protocol ends Spanish-American War, signed
  • 08-12-1990 – Iraq President Saddam Hussein says he is ready to resolve Gulf crisis if Israel withdraws from occupied territories
  • 08-12-1994 – Stephen G Breyer, sworn in as Supreme Court Justice
  • 08-13-1608 – John Smith’s story of Jamestown’s 1st days submitted for publication
  • 08-13-1792 – Revolutionaries imprison French royals including Marie Antoinette
  • 08-13-1906 – Black soldiers raid Brownsville Texas
  • 08-13-1961 – Construction on Berlin Wall begins in East Germany (Dark day)
  • 08-14-1765 – Mass colonists challenge British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree)
  • 08-14-1842 – Seminole War ends; Indians removed from Florida to Oklahoma
  • 08-14-1862 – Lincoln receives 1st group of blacks to confer with US president
  • 08-14-1900 – 2,000 marines land to capture Beijing, ending Boxer rebellion
  • 08-14-1912 – 2,500 US marines invade Nicaragua; US remains until 1925
  • 08-14-1937 – China declares war on Japan
  • 08-14-1942 – Dwight D Eisenhower named commander for invasion of North Africa
  • 08-14-1945 – V-J Day; Japan surrenders unconditionally to end WW II
  • 08-14-1973 – US ends secret bombing of Cambodia
  • 08-15-1534 – Ignatius of Loyola forms society of Jesus/Jesuits
  • 08-15-1620 – Mayflower sets sail from Southampton with 102 Pilgrims
  • 08-15-1824 – Freed American slaves forms country of Liberia
  • 08-15-1867 – 2nd Reform Bill extends suffrage in England
  • 08-15-1870 – Transcontinental Railway actually completed in Colorado
  • 08-15-1944 – Operation Dragoon: Allied troops land in Provence
  • 08-15-1944 – Operation Anvil: Allies land on French Mediterranean sea coast
  • 08-15-1960 – UFO is sighted by 3 California patrolmen
  • 08-15-1969 – Woodstock Music and Art Fair opens in NY State (Max Yasgur’s Dairy Farm)
  • 08-16-1777 – Americans defeat British in Battle of Bennington, Vt
  • 08-16-1858 – Britain’s Queen Victoria telegraphs President James Buchanan
  • 08-16-1861 – Pres Lincoln prohibits Union states from trading with Confederacy
  • 08-16-1863 – Emancipation Proclamation signed
  • 08-16-1961 – Martin L. King, Jr. protests for black voting right in Miami
  • 08-16-1969 – Woodstock rock festival begins in NY
  • 08-17-1590 – John White returns to Roanoke, VA and found no trace of colonist’s he had left there 3 yrs earlier [or Aug 18, 1591]
  • 08-17-1808 – Napoleon asks King Louis for Holland brigade towards Spain
  • 08-17-1862 – Confederate troops under Kirby Smith enter Kentucky
  • 08-17-1870 – Mrs Esther Morris becomes 1st woman magistrate (South Pass, Wyoming)
  • 08-17-1903 – Joe Pulitzer donated $1 million to Columbia U and begins Pulitzer Prizes
  • 08-17-1915 – Mob lynches Jewish businessman Leo Frank in Cobb County, Ga after death sentence for murder of 13-year-old girl commuted to life
  • 08-17-1948 – Alger Hiss denies ever being a Communist agent
  • 08-17-1961 – Building of Berlin Wall begins
  • 08-17-1969 – -18] Hurricane Camille, kills 256 in Miss and Louisiana
  • 08-17-1988 – Republicans nominate George Bush for president
IN THE NEWS:

IN THE NEWS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

REVIEWED AND FIRST CHAPTERS:

  • ALAN BRINKLEY on Jane Mayer: Black Sites THE DARK SIDE The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals NYT, 8-3-08
  • Steven Heller: Designing Dictators IRON FISTS Branding the 20th-Century Totalitarian State NYT, 8-3-08
  • Derek Chollet and James Goldgeier: Era With No Name AMERICA BETWEEN THE WARS From 11/9 to 9/11: The Misunderstood Years Between the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Start of the War on TerrorNYT, 8-3-08
  • Ian Kershaw, Kevin P. Spicer: All for the Führer Two books raise troubling questions about the Nazis’ support from Germany’s populace and priests HITLER, THE GERMANS, AND THE FINAL SOLUTION, HITLER’S PRIESTS Catholic Clergy and National SocialismWaPo, 8-3-08
  • Mark Kurlansky: Sea of Despond THE LAST FISH TALE The Fate of the Atlantic and Survival in Gloucester, America’s Oldest Fishing Port and Most Original TownWaPo, 8-3-08
  • Underwater War Machines – WaPo, 8-3-08
  • Eunice Pollack: UNT lecturer’s encyclopedia explores Jews’ role in modern American history – Dallas Morning News, 8-2-08
  • Jean Edward Smith: He’ll be writing a bio of Bush – NYT, 7-30-08
OP-EDs:

OP-EDs:

BLOGS:

BLOGS:

PROFILED:

PROFILED:

  • David Cecelski: N&O History Columnist Writing Last Column – Raleigh Telegram, 8-1-08
  • Are historians live David Cannadine and Andrew Roberts an endangered species? Literate, engaging and free from constraint, British historians are the best in the world – Times Online, UK, 7-26-08
INTERVIEWS:

INTERVIEWS:

FEATURES:

FEATURES:

QUOTED:

QUOTED:

  • Jim Farmer on “Battle over Confederate flag hits highways”: “It’s not going to go away,” says Jim Farmer, a history professor at the University of South Carolina at Aiken. “There is a subculture within the white Southern population, of which the SCV is the most visible voice, that feels besieged by modern culture in general, and they identify the Old South and Confederacy as a way of life and a period of time before the siege began to really hit the South.” – Christian Science Monitor,
  • David Brion Davis quoted on “Congress Endorses a Lie About Slavery” – Town Hall, DC, 7-31-08
ANNOUNCEMENTS:

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

    HONORED / AWARDED / APPOINTED:

    HONORED, AWARDED, APPOINTED:

    EXHIBITS / WEBSITES:

    EXHIBITS / WEBSITES:

    SPOTTED:

    SPOTTED:

    • Matthew Connelly: Population control ‘ruthlessly coercive’: “The history of these policies is replete with examples of really grotesque human rights violations. Reproductive rights are the most basic human rights and too often family planning that artful phrase has meant planning other people’s families, particularly by aid foundations from wealthier nations in poorer countries.” – Canberra Times, 8-1-08
    CALENDAR:

    CALENDAR:

    • September 15, 2008: Douglas Brinkley at Open VISIONS Forum (OVF) season at Fairfield University. OVF, the lecture series presented by University College at Fairfield University, which presents political pundits, historians, actresses and activists with diverse, provocative and lively views of current and historical topics, will start out with historian Douglas Brinkley on Sept. 15 at 8 p.m. – Redding Pilot, CT, 8-2-08
    • May-September 2008: Elizabeth Brand Monroe, Deborah A. Lee, Lectures Showcase Leesburg’s History for 250th Anniversary – WaPo, 1-18-08
    ON TV:

      ON TV: History Listings This Week

    • Ken Burns: PBS to air his national parks series next year – AP, 7-13-08
    • C-Span2, BookTV: History 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War Author: Benny Morris – Sunday, August 3 @ 7:00pm ET – C-Span2, BookTV
    • PBS: History Ditectives, PBS – Monday, August 4, 2008 @ 9pm ET
    • History Channel: “Hippies,” Sunday, August 3, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: Cannibal Dinosaur,” Sunday, August 3, @ 10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Dicoveries,” Marathon, Monday, August 4, @ 2-7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries: Mega-Structures of the Deep,” Monday, August 4, @ 5pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Ancient Discoveries: Ancient Super Navies,” Monday, August 4, @ 6pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “China’s First Emperor,” Monday, August 4, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “MonsterQuest,” Marathon, Tuesday, August 5, @ 2-7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: Cannibal Dinosaur,” Tuesday, August 5, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Jurassic Fight Club: T-Rex Hunter,” Tuesday, August 5, @ 8pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Targeted: Osama bin Laden,” Wednesday, August 6, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “MonsterQuest: Vampires in America,” Wednesday, August 6, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels,” Marathon, Thursday, August 7, @ 2-10pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “The True Story of the Screaming Eagles: The 101st Airborne: The True Story of the Screaming Eagles: The 101st Airborne,” Friday, August 8, @ 2pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Dogfights,” Marathon, Friday, August 8, @ 4-7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels: Chocolate,” Friday, August 8, @ 9pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Secrets of the Forbidden City,” Saturday, August 9, @ 4pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “Modern Marvels: Ice Cream,” Saturday, August 9, @ 7pm ET/PT
    • History Channel: “China’s First Emperor,” Saturday, August 9, @ 9pm ET/PT
    SELLING BIG (NYT):

    SELLING BIG (NYT):

    • Roger Crowley: EMPIRES OF THE SEA #11 — (1 week on list) – 8-10-08
    • David Maraniss: ROME 1960 #21 – 8-10-08
    FUTURE RELEASES:

    FUTURE RELEASES:

    • Noah Andre Trudeau: Southern Storm: Sherman’s March to the Sea, August 5, 2008
    • Lorri Glover: The Shipwreck That Saved Jamestown: The Sea Venture Castaways and the Fate of America, August 5, 2008
    • Fred E. Haynes: The Lions of Iwo Jima: The Story of Combat Team 28 and the Bloodiest Battle in Marine Corps History, August 5, 2008
    • Patrick Desbois: The Holocaust by Bullets, August 19, 2008
    • Robert Dallek: Harry S. Truman (REV), September 2, 2008
    • Mary C. Henderson: The Story of 42nd Street: The Theatres, Shows, Characters, and Scandals of the World’s Most Notorious Street (First Edition), September 2, 2008
    • Paul Douglas Lockhart: The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army, September 9, 2008
    • Jeffry D. Wert: Cavalryman of the Lost Cause: A Biography of J. E. B. Stuart, September 23, 2008
    • Harold Holzer: Lincoln: President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Winter of Secession, 1860-1861, October 7, 2008
    • David Hackett Fischer: Champlain’s Dream, October 14, 2008
    • Carlo D’Este: Warlord: A Life of Winston Churchill at War, 1874-1945, November 11, 2008
    DEPARTED:

    DEPARTED:

    Posted on Monday, August 4, 2008 at 12:34 AM

    On This Day in History… June 30-September 11, 1862: Eugenia Phillips is sentenced to Ship Island by Gen. Butler

    June 30-September 11, 1862: Confederate Eugenia Phillips is sentenced to Ship Island by “the Beast” General Butler

    By Bonnie Goodman, HNN, 8-19-08

    Ms. Goodman is the Editor / Features Editor at HNN. She has a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University. She blogs at History Musings

    On this day in history…June 30, 1862 to September 11, 1862, Eugenia Levy Phillips, an ardent Confederate was arrested and sentenced to time on Ship Island, Mississippi because she laughed during a Union soldier’s funeral procession in New Orleans.

    Eugenia Levy Phillips in her later yearsEugenia Levy Phillips in her later years

    During the Civil War, women in the South contributed on many levels to the cause through volunteer work, as war supply collectors, seamstresses and nurses, but the far more committed chose to rebel against the Union officials. Many Southern women took advantage of the new politicizing position the war granted women by demonstrating their loyalty to the South through fiercer methods, often through illegal means including, smuggling, espionage, and belligerency. Phoebe Pember summed up Southern women’s devotion best when she wrote, “women of the South had been openly and violently rebellious from the moment they thought their states’ rights touched. They incited the men to struggle in support of their views, and whether right or wrong, sustained them nobly to the end. They were the first to rebel – and the last to succumb.” (Rosen, 44)

    The South’s small Jewish population adamantly sided with their Southern neighbors and so did their women. The majority of these Jewish women were not recent immigrants, but American born and shared the lifestyle and values of their Christian counterparts. As Hasia Diner and Beryl Lieff Benderly write, “Rosana [Osterman], the Levy sisters, and the Natchez M[a]yer daughters were not, of course, recent immigrants but rather the American-born descendants of earlier migrant generations. But they, like Jews throughout the country, both newly arrived and long established, saw themselves as wholehearted Americans and fashioned their lives and identities in response to an American reality quite unlike anything Jews had ever experienced elsewhere.” (Diner and Benderly, 106) These women were Jewish southern belles and lived their lives accordingly.

    These Southern Jewish women were integrated in Southern society, and were attached to a lifestyle they had become accustomed to, and as the war demonstrated Southerners and the Confederacy were more tolerant of Jews than the Union army that ravaged the South, Southern Jews recognized this and devotedly aligned themselves with their beloved South at all costs. As the doyen of American Jewish history Jacob Rader Marcus writes, “The Southern Jewesses were fanatically, almost hysterically, passionate in their sympathies for their new regime. Were they trying to prove that they were more ardent than their neighbors? Why?” (Marcus, 31)

    The Levys were a prominent Southern Jewish family. When the Civil War broke-out they became loyal supporters of the Confederate cause. Two of the sisters, Eugenia Levy Phillips and her younger sister Phoebe Yates Levy Pember, would be remembered in history as ardent Confederates, expressing their devotion at opposite extremes. Phoebe Pember nursed the wounded Confederates. She was one of the South’s most remembered female hospital matrons and a nurse in the largest military hospital in the Confederacy during the Civil War. She was the chief matron at Hospital Number Two at Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond, Virginia, from 1862 to 1865. Pember’s older sister Eugenia, however, was such an ardent Confederate that her devotion to the cause showed no boundaries, and she is remembered for supposedly serving as a Confederate spy and for her hostility to one of the Union’s fiercest generals, Benjamin Butler, who was known for his hatred of the Confederacy as much as his anti-Semitic attitudes.

    Eugenia Levy Phillips, born in Charleston in 1819, was the daughter of Jacob Clavius Levy, a merchant, and Fanny Yates Levy, an actress. She married U.S. Congressman Philip Phillips of Mobile, Alabama when she was 16, and went on to have nine children. Phillips was a leading figure in Alabama politics from the 1830s to the 1850s when he was elected to the United States Congress in 1852. After one term in Congress, he established a law practice in Washington, D.C. Eugenia and her husband differed greatly in their political beliefs; Phillips was a Unionist, while Eugenia was probably one of the fiercest secessionists in the District of Columbia. Eugenia also socialized with other secessionists and women suspected of spying on the Union for the Confederacy, particularly Rose O’Neal Greenhow, well-known Confederate spy. Eugenia Phillips writing in her journal claimed, “American women knew nothing of war, believed less in the cruelties and fearful vindictiveness of the Federal governm[en]t. Thus the Southern women gave free expression to the feelings which habit had made but second nature, and spoke of their hatred and determination to sustain their rights by encouraging in their husbands, sons, and fathers every resistance to tyranny exhibited by the Republicans.” (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    Eugenia’s associations and excessive antagonism toward the Union made her a target for government surveillance. On August 24, 1861, Federal officers came into Eugenia and Phillip Phillips’ home arresting both of them. Phillip remained under house arrest for a week, but Eugenia and two of their daughters, Fanny and Caroline as well as Eugenia’s sister, Martha Levy, where taken to Rose Greenhow’s house to be imprisoned. The Union had arrested Greenhow the previous day for relaying plans for the first Manassas Campaign to Confederate General McDowell. There all five women remained imprisoned in two rooms in Greenhow’s attic with hardly any amenities. Eugenia Phillips described it in her journal, “The stove (broken) served us for table and washstand, while a punch bowl grew into a washbasin. Two filthy straw mattresses kept us warm, and Yankee soldiers were placed at our bedroom door to prevent our escape.” (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    Despite the fact that Union officers had no evidence against her and her family, they remained imprisoned, though Phillip Phillips was allowed to visit and bring food baskets, albeit under strict Union supervision. Eugenia believed her loyalty to her country should not be considered a crime to imprison her for, writing in her memoir, “Again I ask what is my crime? If an ardent attachment to the land of my birth and expression of deepest sympathy with relatives and friends in the South constitute treason than I am indeed a traitor. If hostility towards black Republicanism, its sentiment and policy-it is a crime-and I am self-condemned…!” (Rosen, 288) Southern women were outraged at the North’s treatment of women with no reason, especially the imprisonment of Eugenia’s two daughters. Phillips had to use his influence with Edward Stanton, Senator Reverdy Johnson from Maryland, and Supreme Court Justice James M. Wayne, the former mayor of Savannah, to secure his family’s release. However, the Union exiled the Phillips family from the nation’s capital, forcing them to relocate to the Southern states. The whole family was also required to take an oath as a condition of their parole to “not to take illegal actions against the Union.”

    It would not very long for Eugenia to again to breech the agreement. After leaving Washington the couple first traveled to Norfolk, Virginia and then on to Richmond through Savannah, eventually settling in New Orleans in the closing weeks of 1861. Although conditions were unfavorable for Phillips’s law practice, the family settled there because it appeared to be safe from Union army invasion. By April however, the Union army was closing in on the Mississippi River. News Orleans surrendered on April 29, 1862.

    By May 1, 1862, Major General Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts took over command of the city. Butler tried to control the city with an iron fist. The historian Bertram Wallace Korn describes Butler as a “conniving careerist and political opportunist of major proportions, who was given the title of ‘Beast’ by the Confederacy for his severity during the early military occupation of New Orleans.” (Korn, 164) While historian Robert Rosen writes ” ‘Beast’ Butler was the worst, the Union Army had to offer. He was nicknamed spoons for thiefery of spoons and silverware imputed to him and his soldiers.” (Rosen, 290)

    In addition to this reputation as a beast, Butler was also a known anti-Semite, who throughout the war openly expressed his hatred for Jews, many of whom had settled in the South. Korn transcribes Butler’s sentiments toward Jews, “They were a tightly-knit and highly-organized nation who set themselves apart and defended themselves against others even when one of their group was wrong. They were all ‘traders, merchants, and bankers.’ He said that the only Jews he ever knew had “been principally engaged in the occupations [i.e. smuggling] which caused the capture which has occasioned this correspondence.” They were supporting the Confederacy with whole heart – ‘two of them certainly are in the Confederate Cabinet.’” (Korn, 164)

    When General Butler occupied New Orleans in May 1862, the Southern population treated the Yankees with such contempt that they refused to comply with Federal orders. Southerners formed mobs to attack Union soldiers; they refused to serve Yankees in their businesses; priests refused to pray for the president of the United States, and one man was even sentenced to be hung for burning the Union flag. Despite the harsh punishments the Yankee soldiers issued to New Orleans natives, the women believed these rules did not apply to them and that they were exempt from all harsh treatments because of their gender. Many of New Orleans’ women expressed extreme belligerency toward Union officials.

    The majority of the women who acted in this manner were upper class. As historian Drew Gilpin Faust writes, Butler “recognized that the perpetrators were generally young, often ‘pretty and interesting,’ and frequently socially prominent, the kind of individuals who would attract both attention and sympathy if harsh measures turned them into martyrs.” (Faust, 209) At the same time, however, Butler knew he had to control their actions, for as he recalled in his memoir, “a city could hardly be said to be under good government where such things were permitted.” (Butler, 417) On May 15 in retaliation to the women’s disrespectful behavior Butler issued his infamous General Order No. 28, known as the “Women order”:

    General Order No. 28. As the officers and soldiers of the United States have been subject to repeated insults from the women (calling themselves ladies) of New Orleans . . . it is ordered that hereafter when any female shall, by word, gesture, or movement, insult or show contempt for any officer or soldier of the United States, she shall be regarded and held liable to be treated as a woman of the town plying her avocation. (Butler, 421, 418; Faust, 210).

    The order put Eugenia Phillips in danger of yet again being imprisoned because of her fierce loyalty to the Confederacy, and her utter disregard and respect for the Union. Phillips was vulnerable to Butler’s wrath because she was both Jewish and a member of the city’s Confederate aristocracy. In an attempt to avoid Butler’s anger Eugenia and the Phillips family remained for the most part at home. However, Eugenia still managed to attract Butler’s fury. The Phillips’s house was situated next to city hall. The day of Union Officer Lieutenant DeKay’s funeral procession passed by the street, Butler caught Eugenia blurting out in laughter and cheering on the terrace of her home. As Benjamin Butler biographer Hans L. Trefousse writes, “High spirited and intensely loyal to the Confederacy, she had been in trouble before when she was apprehended for espionage in Washington. This time, not espionage but merriment was to prove her undoing.” (Trefousse, 118)

    Eugenia denied she had laughed at the funeral procession. There have been two accounts explaining why she was laughing. First Eugenia’s daughter Caroline claims it was because Eugenia heard of a Confederate victory and was in a celebratory mood, while other accounts including Eugenia’s own excuse, claim she was laughing at the antics of her younger children at a party. At first when Butler called her to the Customs House, as Rosen writes, “Eugenia, active in raising money for the widow of a man executed by Butler for having hauled down the flag from the federal mint, believed she was being prosecuted for her pro-Southern beliefs.” (Rosen, 291) At the Customs House Butler screamed at Eugenia, “You are seen laughing and mocking at the remains of a Federal officer. I do not call you a common woman of the town, but an uncommonly vulgar one, and I sentence you to Ship Island for the War.” Eugenia’s reply further angered Butler as she wrote, “Again my insolence aroused this son of liberty, particularly as in reply to his accusation I had said: ‘I was in good spirits the day of the funeral.’” (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    Eugenia’s response and her refusal to plead and beg for freedom led to her harsh punishment rather than her original crime. As she explained in her journal, “I noted that he took a mighty long time to write my sentence, and I suspected that he hoped by delay I would throw myself on his mercy, or beg his pardon, or promise never to do so again. Nothing of this kind ever crossed my brain, and, full of holy indignation and determination to meet with silent contempt this outrageous insult, I quietly folded my arms and looked on him while he wrote. Not a word of appeal or explanation broke the ominous silence. My accuser had made the charge and sentenced me without judge or jury.” (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    Butler wrote in Special Order No. 150 delineating Eugenia Phillips’ sentence: “…having been once imprisoned for her traitorous proclivities and acts at Washington, and released by the clemency of the Government, and having been found training her children to spit on officers of the United States, for which act of one of those children both her husband and herself apologized and were again forgiven, [she] is now found on the balcony of her house during the passage of the funeral procession of Lieut. DeKay, laughing and mocking at his remains, and upon being inquired of by the Commanding General if this fact were so, contemptuously replies, “I was in good spirits that day.” (Korn, 164; Special Order No. 150)

    Butler ordered Eugenia to remain on Ship Island, a known yellow fever quarantine station situated off the coast of Mississippi. The island was infested with mosquitoes. In the summer the heat could be fatal while hygiene and proper food was hard to come by. Butler allowed Eugenia to have one servant to accompany and attend to her during her imprisonment, and she took her loyal servant Phebe with her. She was also not allowed to communicate with anyone but Butler and her maid; any letters she wrote her family were reviewed by Union guards, and only after she was freed did her family truly learn about her living conditions on the island.

    On June 30, 1862 Eugenia commenced her imprisonment, first living in a former railroad boxcar and then in an abandoned post office building. Butler allowed Mr. Phillips to send Eugenia some food, mostly beans and spoiled beef. The harsh conditions took a heavy toll on Eugenia Phillips; the deprivation of food nearly destroyed her health, and Eugenia suffered from brain fever, which was considered nervous exhaustion. Her continued pride and loyalty to the Confederacy was the main reason Butler did not release Eugenia earlier. As she wrote in her journal, “The ‘great’ Gen. Butler sent once a week to inquire after my health. He, no doubt, hoped I would at last cringe and beg. Thank God, who gave me strength and patience to keep me from this black stain.” (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    September 11, 1862, after nearly three months on Ship Island, Butler finally released Eugenia. When she arrived home and her husband opened the door, she believed he was seeing a ghost as believed as he was not certain she was still alive by that point. Publicly while she was imprisoned her whereabouts were vague. (Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862)

    Throughout her time on the island, Eugenia was able to send out a few letters to her family, which described the “gruesome” and inhumane conditions she was forced to live in; these letters according to George Rable “made her imprisonment a cause célèbre.” Eugenia’s imprisonment caused an uproar from Southerners. The press throughout the country carried the story. Most people believed the sentence was too harsh for the crime. Korn explains, “The war which Butler waged upon this Jewess and other Southern women made him the Confederacy’s ‘Public Enemy Number One,’ with a price upon his head.” (Korn, 164) The citizens of New Orleans visited the Phillips family home as a sign of support.

    The Jewish community and other Southern women abhorred the treatment that Eugenia was receiving at the hands of Butler. Mary Chesnut, a Christian friend of Eugenia Phillips, wrote in A Diary from Dixie, “Mrs. Phillips, another beautiful and clever Jewess, has been put in prison again by ‘Beast’ Butler for laughing as a Yankee funeral procession went by.” (Chesnut, 266) There was even talk of Southerners planning to rescue Eugenia. According to Trefousse, “It was a sentence as harsh as it was sensational. Southerners talked of rescuing the lady, but they lacked the necessary ships and found it impossible to carry out their chivalrous plan. Butler pardoned her in September, two and a half months after her arrest, but this action did not dispel the popular belief that he was a cruel tyrant.” (Trefousse, 118)

    Butler regretted that Eugenia’s imprisonment had the opposite effect than he intended. He wanted to make Eugenia’s treasonous behavior toward the Union an example of what happened to women who display such behavior. Instead, as Rable writes, Butler turned “an irksome rebel into a martyr,” which was the main reason he chose to release her from Ship Island early. Eugenia Phillips, according to Rable, “had shown considerable public relations acumen, and her prison journal reveals an ironic sense of humor, especially in her wry proposal to use a steam device to pump moisture into the rock-hard bread. Though not exactly besting Butler, she had played the wily Massachusetts politician to a draw.” (Clinton, 142) Despite the cruel punishment that awaited her, Eugenia remained loyal to the Confederacy. As William Garett noted, “her proud Southern spirit never quailed and she remained firm to the last in the opinions she had expressed.” (Rosen, 293)

    Eugenia Levy Phillips’s devotion to the Confederacy appeared “unquestionable,” as Lauren Winner describes. Although Eugenia was a practicing Jew, she saw herself especially during the war as primarily a Southerner who would support her “country” at all costs, which she did. As Winner explains, Phillips “was so unswerving in her devotion to the Confederate cause that the Union suspected her of being a spy.” (Clinton, 195) Eugenia Phillips and her sister Phoebe Pember have been the Southern Jewish women most remembered by historians, and their devotion has been elevated beyond their religion, which was the hope of most of the Southern Jewish women that volunteered in support of the cause.

    Sources and Further Reading

    Benjamin F. Butler, Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major-General Benjamin F. Butler, (Thayer, 1892).

    Mary Boykin Miller Chestnut, Ben Williams Ames, ed., A Diary from Dixie, (Harvard University Press, 1980).

    Catherine Clinton, Nina Silber, eds., Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, (Oxford University Press, 1992).

    Drew Gilpin Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War, (University of North Carolina Press, 1996).

    Bertram Wallace Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War, (Jewish Publication Society, 1951).

    Jacob R. Marcus, The American Jewish Woman: A Documentary History, (Ktav Pub. House; American Jewish Archives, 1981).

    Eugenia Phillips, Journal of Mrs. Eugenia Levy Phillips, 1861-1862.

    Samuel Proctor, et al., eds., Jews of the South: Selected Essays from the Southern Jewish Historical Society, (Mercer University Press, 1984).

    Robert Rosen, The Jewish Confederates, (University of South Carolina Press, 2000).

    Special Order No. 150, Headquarters Department of the Gulf, June 30, 1862.

    Hans L. Trefousse, Ben Butler: The South Called Him Beast!, (Twayne Publishers, 1957).

    Posted on Tuesday, August 19, 2008


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