On This Day in History… September 11, 2001: President Barack Obama & Former President George W. Bush Observe the 10th Anniversary of the 9/11 Terror Attacks on the World Trade Center Twin Towers, Pentagon & United Flight 93 with Memorials

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY:

Day in History

By Bonnie K. Goodman

Ms. Goodman is the Editor of History Musings. She has a BA in History & Art History & a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University.

IN FOCUS: 10th ANNIVERSARY OF 9/11 TERROR ATTACKS

The 10th Anniversary of 9/11

From left: Laura Bush, George W. Bush, Michelle Obama and President Obama observe a moment of silence at the National September 11 Memorial. | AP Photo

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY….

On this day in history… September 11, 2001… Terrorists hijack two passenger planes crashing them into New York’s World Trade Towers causing the collapse of the 110-story twin towers& death of 2,752 people.
Terrorists hijack a passenger plane and crash it into the Pentagon causing the death of 125 people.
Attempt by passengers and crew of United Airlines Flight 93 to retake control of their hijacked plane from terrorists causes plane to crash in Pennsylvania field killing all 64 people onboard.

What was 9/11?: On September 11, 2001, 19 members of a terrorist group called al-Qaeda hijacked four U.S. airplanes and used them to strike various targets on the East Coast. The carefully planned attacks killed nearly 3,000 people, making it the worst attack on the United States in history…. – WaPo, 9-10-11

QUOTES

Archives: President George W. Bush’s Address to the Nation after Terror Attacks (Full Text) — Globe & Mail, 8-26-11

Full Text September 11, 2011: President Barack Obama’s Speech at the 9-11 “A Concert for Hope” — Kennedy Center in Washington, DC WH, 9-11-11

Full Text September 11, 2011: President Barack Obama’s 9-11 Message to the Families — Remarks at National September 11 Memorial in New York & United Flight 93 Memorial WH, 9-11-11

Full Text September 11, 2011: Vice President Joe Biden’s Speech at the 9-11 Memorial at the Pentagon, Washington DC WH, 9-11-11

9/11 anniversary: President Obama’s reading at World Trade Center LAT, 9-11-11

Bush Reads From Lincoln Letter at Ground Zero: Former President George W. Bush read a letter President Abraham Lincoln wrote to a widow who lost five sons in the Civil War during commemorations for the 10th anniversary of 9/11 at Ground Zero in New York. (Sept. 11)… – AP, 9-11-11

Full Text September 10, 2011: President George W. Bush’s Speech at the Unveiling of the Flight 93 National Memorial, Shanksville, Pennsylvania Fox News, 9-10-11

Full Text September 10, 2011: Vice President Joe Biden, President George W. Bush & President Bill Clinton at the Unveiling of the Flight 93 National Memorial, Shanksville, Pennsylvania WH, 9-10-11

Full Text September 10, 2011: President Barack Obama’s Weekly Address Marks the 10th Anniversary of 9/11, the September 11th Terror Attacks & Pays Tribute to the First Responders WH, 9-10-11

“”It will be said that we kept the faith. That we took a painful blow, and we emerged stronger than ever before.
It is worth remembering what has not changed — our character as a nation has not changed.
These past 10 years have shown that America does not give in to fear.
The rescue workers who rushed to the scene; the firefighters who charged up the stairs; the passengers who stormed the cockpit — these patriots defined the very nature of courage.
Our people still work in skyscrapers. Our stadiums are filled with fans, and our parks full of children playing ball…..
Too many will never come home. Those that do carry dark memories from distant places, and the legacy of fallen friends.”
Our strength is not measured in our ability to stay in these places; it comes from our commitment to leave those lands to free people and sovereign states, and our desire to move from a decade of war to a future of peace.
Debates — about war and peace; about security and civil liberties — have often been fierce these last ten years. But it is precisely the rigor of these debates, and our ability to resolve them in a way that honors our values and our democracy, that is the measure of our strength.
After 9/11, to his great credit, President Bush made clear what we reaffirm today: the United States will never wage war against Islam or any other religion. Immigrants come here from all parts of the globe.
They will know that nothing can break the will of a truly United States of America. They will be reminded that we are not perfect, but our democracy is durable, and that democracy — reflecting, as it does, the imperfections of man — also gives us the opportunity to perfect our union. That is what we honor on days of national commemoration — those aspects of the American experience that are enduring, and the determination to move forward as one people.” — President Obama at “A Concert for Hope” at the Kennedy Center in Washington

    • Obama’s remarks at Sept. 11 observance in NY: Text of President Barack Obama’s remarks at New York City’s commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, as provided by the White House. He read from Psalm 46…. – AP, 9-11-11

“God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore, we will not fear, even though the earth be removed and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea, though its waters roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with its swelling.” — — President Obama, Psalm 46

“President Lincoln not only understood the heartbreak of his country, he also understood the cost to sacrifice and reached out to console those in sorrow.” — Fromer President George W. Bush

“Dear Madam,
I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any word of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming.
But I cannot refrain from tendering you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.
Yours, very sincerely and respectfully,
‘A. Lincoln'” —
ABRAHAM LINCOLN’S LETTER TO MRS BIXBY, 1864, Washington, November 21, 1864 read by Former President George W. Bush at the 9/11 Memorial

“Ten years have passed since a perfect blue sky morning turned into the blackest of nights. Since then, we’ve lived in sunshine and in shadows. And although we can never ‘unsee’ what happened here … we can also see that children who lost their parents have grown into young adults, grandchildren have been born, and good works and public service have taken root to honor those we loved and lost.” — New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg said in opening the ceremony

“They were our neighbors, our friends, our husbands, wives, brothers, sisters, children and parents. They were the ones who rushed in to help, 2,983 innocent men, women and children. We have asked their families to come here to speak the names out loud to remind each of us of a person we lost in New York, in Washington and Pennsylvania.” — New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg said in opening the ceremony

“Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere.” — New York Governor Andrew Cuomo

“Names etched on the head of a pin.
One name spanning a bridge, another undergoing a tunnel.
A blue name needled into the skin.
Names of citizens, workers, mothers and fathers,
The bright-eyed daughter, the quick son.
Alphabet of names in a green field.
Names in the small tracks of birds.
Names lifted from a hat
Or balanced on the tip of the tongue.
Names wheeled into the dim warehouse of memory.
So many names, there is barely room on the walls of the heart.” — former New York Governor George Pataki read the last verse of “No words cried out so fully from the broken heart of our nation as those of a poem called “The Names,” written a year after the attacks, by the United States’ Poet Laureate, Billy Collins.

“Gently they go, the beautiful, the tender, the kind;
Quietly they go, the intelligent, the witty, the brave.
I know. But I do not approve. And I am not resigned.” — Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani quoted Edna St. Vincent Millay

“If I should die and leave you here a while,
be not like others sore undone,
who keep long vigil by the silent dust.
For my sake turn again to life and smile,
nerving thy heart and trembling hand
to do something to comfort other hearts than thine.
Complete these dear unfinished tasks of mine
and I perchance may therein comfort you.”
— New Jersey Governor Chris Christie also turned to a poet, Mary Lee Hall, who wrote “Turn Again To Life”

“I know these memorials — and you’ve been through many — are bittersweet moments for you, because as you sit here right now, unlike a month ago, everything’s come back in stark relief. It’s not a thought, it’s precise. You remember that God-awful empty feeling, you remember being sucked into your own chest and that feeling of hollowness. But I want you to know something else. Your physical presence here today gives hope to thousands of Americans who under different circumstances are trying to come to grips with the losses that you had.” — Vice President Joe Biden attended the Pentagon ceremony

Ten years ago today, ordinary Americans went to work or boarded a plane and found themselves fighting on the frontlines of a battle they did not choose. They acquitted themselves with grace and courage, just as the thousands of men and women who enlisted to fight in our armed forces— many on the anniversaries of this day—in order to exact justice for their fellow Americans. We will never forget those who died ten years ago today, we will never forget those who died in the war that started on that day, and we ask God to comfort and bless their families. From across this great nation, grateful Americans honor those who defend our homeland. God bless America. — Sarah Palin

“What happened above this Pennsylvania field was among the most courageous acts in American history. For as long as this memorial stands, we’ll remember … the sacrifice they made and the lives they spared. The United States will never forget…. Americans are alive today because the passengers and crew of Flight 93 chose to act, and our nation will be forever grateful.” — Former President George W. Bush at United Flight 93 Memorial, Shanksville, PA

“There has always been a special place in the common memory for people who deliberately, knowingly, certainly lay down their lives for other people to live.” — Former President Bill Clinton at United Flight 93 Memorial, Shanksville, PA

“Ten years later, I’d say America came through this thing in a way that was consistent with our character. Some things haven’t happened as quickly as they needed to. But overall, we took the fight to al- Qaeda, we preserved our values, we preserved our character.” — President Barack Obama in an interview with NBC News

Bush After 9/11 Says He Has No Regrets: “The work that was done by intelligence communities during my presidency was part of putting together the puzzle that enabled us to see the full picture of how bin Laden was communicating and eventually where he was hiding. It began the day after 9/11.

I, of course, remember (White House Chief of Staff Andy Card) whispering in my ear. I remember the faces of the children. … It was a moment of clarity because people were going to watch how I reacted, and I had enough experience with crises to understand that if you’re head of an organization, it’s important to project calm in the initial stages of a crisis.

The key thing that I tried to do was to say let’s gather facts so we know what’s happening. The problem that I faced — and the truth of the matter is, many in my administration faced — was during certain moments during the day, there was a fog of war, and the information flow was just really inaccurate. … We needed to take steps to make sure that the attack was a four- plane attack, not a 10-plane attack. We just didn’t know. … My mind eventually became focused on finding out who did it and seeking justice, but initially it was respond and prevent.

There were moments when I said I’d like to be alone and just thinking through the ramifications and making sure that my thoughts were clear. I prayed for the victims. I prayed for our country. I would see people jump off buildings, and it just was horrific, but I was also determined to lead the country.

The first two statements were on the fly. I didn’t realize I had missed the mark. … I just did the best I could do given the circumstances, but obviously it wasn’t the best setting for a president to try to calm the nerves of the country. I wanted to speak from the Oval Office. I wasn’t going to address our nation from a bunker. It would have been a huge psychological victory for the people who attacked.

The job of the president was to say here are the facts, here’s what we’re dealing with, and deal with them. Not to feel sorry for yourself, or not to say why did it happen under my watch? That’s not a leadership trait that is admirable. … I felt like I had the capacity to deal with the crisis, and you don’t know until it happens. When I look back on it, I don’t feel a sense of being overwhelmed.
Not that I can think of. I mean, I think the response, laying out tools so that future presidents can have a better chance to protect the country, it’s a legacy that I hope historians will say, ‘It’s a good legacy: He used tools that he thought were necessary and then he helped work with the Congress to codify them, so future presidents, if they so choose, can use those tools.’

My mind was just churning over the events, the response, the information that had been given through a variety of National Security Council meetings. … And then just as I was kind of dozing off, (a Secret Service agent said) ‘Mr. President,’ and off we go. I had the T-shirt on and the running shorts and grabbed Laura, who didn’t have her contacts on, grabbed (dog) Barney. We must have been looking like a motley crew as we headed down. … It was almost surreal, these big pneumatic doors as you’re heading into the bowels of the White House, guys in black uniforms and guns.
I didn’t want to sleep down there because I knew I needed to be rested for the next day, and the bed looked horrible. Harry Truman must have bought the bed. It was one of those pullouts with a metal bar in the middle. I was envisioning Laura and I kind of fighting for the soft space.” — ABC News, 9-11-11

HEADLINES

    • 9/11 Remembered 9/11: The 25 Most Powerful Photos: One decade after 9/11, an unsettling number of images from Ground Zero and its environs remain seared in our collective memory — unsurprising, perhaps, given the scope and scale of the destruction. But the fact that the deadliest, most visually arresting attacks occurred in New York City also meant that many of the world’s best photographers were, in effect, already on the scene when the terrorists struck. Here, to mark the tenth anniversary of 9/11, and in hopes of lending coherence to our shared, turbulent recollections, LIFE.com presents the 25 most stirring, visceral photographs from that day, featuring pictures from the likes of James Nachtwey, Joe Raedle, Spencer Platt, Mario Tama, and other celebrated photojournalists (and one intrepid amateur). These are the pictures we remember: wrenching, indelible photographs that tell the tale of a still- resonant late summer day that changed everything…. – Yahoo News

9/11 LIVE: Scenes from the 9/11 anniversary: As the nation and the world mark the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, Associated Press journalists are tracking down the most salient details of the day, and capturing the mood, from ground zero to Afghanistan and everywhere in between…. – AO, 9-11-11

    • Once More, an Outpouring of Grief on 9/11 A Day That Stands Alone in History: Thousands gathered to mark the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks that dramatically changed a city and a nation…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • 9/11 anniversary: Obama’s day, from mourning to hope: It was a day to mourn the memory of things past while hoping that resilience will create a brighter future as President Obama visited all three sites scarred the deadliest act of terrorism in the nation’s history on the 10th anniversary of 9/11. … – LAT, 9-11-11
    • 9/11 anniversary: Obama closes day with “Concert for Hope”: Closing a day of 9/11 remembrances at a “Concert for Hope” in Washington, D.C., President Obama reminded Americans Sunday evening of their resilience as he paid tribute to the losses suffered a decade ago while recalling the country’s enduring values.
      “Ten years ago, America confronted one of our darkest nights,” the president said from the stage of the Kennedy Center along the banks of the Potomac River. “Yet today, it is worth remembering what has not changed.”
      “These past 10 years have shown that America does not give in to fear,’ the president said, citing the rescue workers who rushed to help on Sept. 11, 2001, and the passengers who stormed the cockpit of United Airlines Flight 93.
      Obama hailed the services of the more than 2 million Americans who have served in the volunteer military over the last decade, even as he warned of the price of war…. – LAT, 9-11-11
    • Obama Concludes 9/11 Anniversary at the Kennedy Center: After stops in New York City, Shanksville, PA, and at the Pentagon, the president finished his day of 9/11 tributes with the “Concert for Hope” at Washington, DC’s Kennedy Center. Following performances by the Marine Chamber Orchestra, Washington National Cathedral Choir, Alan Jackson, Denyce Graves, and Patti LaBelle, Obama gave a speech in which he called the United States “stronger than before” the terrorist attacks ten years ago. Opening with a passage from the bible (“Weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning”), he focused on themes of resilience and sacrifice. Obama also touched on some of the less inspiring byproducts of the tragedy, including the country’s ongoing wars in the Middle East, debates over civil liberties, and racial and religious tensions, making sure to reaffirm that, “The United States will never wage war against Islam or any religion.” Mostly, though, he struck an optimistic tone, telling listeners that future generations would visit 9/11 memorials for a reminder that, “Nothing can break the will of a truly United States of America.”… – New York Magazine, 9-11-11
    • Obama: America does not give in to fear: Ten years after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, America has emerged stronger and its character remains unchanged, President Obama said Sunday.
      “These past 10 years have shown that America does not give in to fear,” the president said at a concert at the Kennedy Center in Washington, the last in a series of events Mr. Obama attended to commemorate the anniversary of the attacks. ” Our people still work in skyscrapers. Our stadiums are filled with fans, and our parks full of children playing ball.”
      The president spoke of young girls who lost their father in the attack on the Twin Towers and said their hopeful future is the “ultimate rebuke” to the terrorists who took their father’s life…. – CBS News, 9-11-11
    • Obama: U.S. Stronger After 9/11: It was a long, solemn Sunday for President Obama, who marked the 9/11 anniversary by saying that the past decade has been “a story of American resilience.” In his final speech of the day in Washington, D.C., on Sunday evening, Obama said that despite the problems of the past 10 years, America is stronger. He said, “It will be said that we kept that faith. That we took a painful blow, and emerged stronger than ever before.” He also reminded Americans that it’s worth remembering what has not changed since the attacks: the nation’s character. He also referred to some of the debates over policy that many have found frustrating in recent months, saying, “It is precisely the rigor of these debates, and our ability to resolve them in a way that honors our values, that is a measure of our strength.”… – The Daily Beast, 9-11-11 USA Today, 9-11-11
    • 9/11 anniversary: Ceremony at World Trade Center 10 years after September 11: Ten years after the darkest day in American history, the families of the victims of the 9/11 attacks and officials including President Obama and former President Bush gathered to honor those lost. Ten years after the darkest day in American history…. – New York Daily News, 9-11-11
    • Obamas ‘particularly moved’ at 911 site: President Obama was impressed by the memorial at the World Trade Center site in Manhattan, and he and the first lady were “particularly moved” by the readings during Sunday’s service there, spokesman Josh Earnest said…. – Politico, 9-11-11
    • Why Obama picked Psalm 46 to read at New York 9-11 anniversary: President Obama read Psalm 46 at the New York ceremony Sunday marking the tenth anniversary of the 9-11 attacks.
      Principal deputy press secretary Josh Earnest explained why Obama selected that psalm. “The President chose a scripture which he believed was most appropriate — he believed it was particularly appropriate to use — to read scripture this morning. And he chose a passage that talks of persevering through very difficult challenges and emerging from those challenges stronger,” Earnest said…. – Chicago Sun-Times, 9-11-11
    • Obama and Bush lead 9/11 observance: Under a sky as clear as the one that filled with flames, smoke and ash the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, tens of thousands of people gathered at the World Trade Center site in lower Manhattan Sunday morning to remember those who died in the terrorist attacks that day and to reflect on the tumultuous decade that followed.
      Ten years after two airplanes flying low over New York struck the twin towers, killing 2,753 people, President Barack Obama was joined by his predecessor, former President George W. Bush, in paying tribute to the victims, their loved ones and a nation changed by force, and by will. Counting the casualties from a third plane that crashed into the Pentagon and a fourth plane crashed by hijackers into a field in Shanksville, Pa., 2,977 people died on 9/11.
      It was the first time Obama and Bush have appeared together at Ground Zero, site of the most deadly of the attacks that defined Bush’s presidency while greatly shaping Obama’s – and it was their first meeting since January, 2010…. – Politico, 9-11-11
    • America marks 10th anniversary of Sept. 11 terror attacks: A moment of silence at the U.S. Embassy in Afghanistan. The reading of names in a grassy western Pennsylvania field. A visit, by President Obama, to the Arlington National Cemetery graves of 60 U.S. service members killed in Afghanistan and Iraq.
      With these solemn gestures, Americans across the world began marking the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks on the Pentagon in Virginia and World Trade Center in New York.
      Under sunny skies, reminiscent of the clear blue morning 10 years ago when hijackers crashed four jetliners, killing nearly 3,000 people, ceremonies began Sunday morning at Ground Zero. Obama and former president George W. Bush, along with their wives, walked slowly along the North Memorial Pool, where the north Trade Center tower fell…. – WaPo, 9-11-11
    • America Remembers Terror Victims, Honors ‘9/11 Generation of Warriors’: AP President Obama lays a wreath as the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks are observed at the Pentagon Sept. 11. Americans told stories of loved ones, read from Scripture and waved the flag Sunday as they honored the memories of those who died…. – Fox News, 9-11-11
    • N.Y.C.: Moments of silence at ground zero: Moments of silence were observed in New York City Sunday on the tenth anniversary of the terror attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center and killed nearly 3,000 people….
      Sixty bagpipe players and drummers led the World Trade flag through the memorial, where the flag was unfolded and held aloft by the Honor Guard…. – CBS News, 9-11-11
    • George W Bush addresses mourning families with Abraham Lincoln letter as he commemorates lives lost on 9/11: Former U.S. President George W Bush read a letter today written by Abraham Lincoln as he addressed the families of thousands of victims killed on 9/11 this morning.
      Commemorating the sacrifices of those lost in the horrific terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Bush cited Lincoln’s letter to Mrs Lydia Bixby, penned in 1864.
      The text, regarded highly among Lincoln’s finest works of writing, addresses a bereaved mother of five sons who were thought to have died while fighting for the Union in the Civil War…. – Daily Mail UK, 9-11-11
    • Bush and Obama: Side by Side: At ground zero, the president defined by his response to Sept. 11 and the one who has tried to take America beyond the lingering, complicated legacy of that day…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • Bush and Obama: Side by Side at Ground Zero: For the first time on Sunday, President Obama and former President George W. Bush stood together at the site of the Sept. 11 attacks, listening as family members read the names of lost love ones and bowing their heads…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • At Pentagon, No Words Will Fill Void: Families of the 184 people who died in the attack remember the moment…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • In Shanksville, a Silent Field: At 10:03 a.m., instead of an explosion, there was quiet remembrance…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • In Pennsylvania, a Wall of Names: President Obama and his wife, Michelle, placed a large wreath at the memorial…. – NYT, 9-11-11
    • Obama, Bush see raw emotions at 9/11 events: * Obama continues war on militants begun by Bush
      * Two appear together for first time in 18 months
      * Obama: U.S. overcomes slavery, fascism, terrorism (Updates with Obama remarks)
      President Barack Obama picked up where his predecessor George W. Bush left off in the war against Islamic militants after the Sept. 11 attacks, and on Sunday both saw the raw emotions that linger 10 years later.
      The 10th anniversary of the attacks marked the first time the Democratic and Republican presidents have appeared together publicly since January 2010. But, joined by their wives, the two men made a show of solidarity at Ground Zero in New York, walking in tandem along a memorial pool at the site of the north tower of the World Trade Center. [ID:nS1E78A00A]
      They nodded their heads during a moment of silence, the only sound the roaring of the waterfall in the pool.
      Afterward, they appeared together behind bullet-proof glass near where the names of those killed on Sept. 11 were read aloud…. – Reuters, 9-11-11
    • U.S. marks 10 years since 9/11 with solemnity, prayer: With simple and solemn ceremony, the United States marked the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Sunday with prayer and remembrances at the sites where thousands of Americans died.
      President Barack Obama was joined by former President George W. Bush at the site of the World Trade Center in New York, a moment of bipartisan unity to honor the dead reminiscent of the way the country came together in the wake of the attacks.
      Hand in hand with their wives, they walked to the site as the ceremony opened at 8:46 am, the precise moment the first hijacked plane smashed into the first tower. A church bell rang twice…. – McClatchy Newspapers, 9-11-11
    • Families, dignitaries mourn at World Trade Center in N.Y.: Beneath a cloudless sky eerily reminiscent of the fateful day 10 years ago, officials, families of those killed and other mourners gathered on Sunday in a national day of commemoration at the site of the World Trade Center to recall the terror attack in New York City.
      In a show of unity that crossed party lines, President Obama and former President George W. Bush led dignitaries at the site. They and their wives toured the North Memorial Pool, the scene of the fallen north tower that collapsed on Sept. 11, 2001.
      Each president held his spouse’s hand and the quartet made its way around a wall that is etched with the names of the nearly 3,000 who died in the collapse of the towers.
      Then Obama and Bush hugged some family members of those killed and went over to pay respects to New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Mayor Rudy Giuliani, who rose to national prominence for his handling of the crisis. Also attending were present and former governors…. – LAT, 9-11-11
    • President Obama Honors 9/11 Victims at WTC Site: President Obama and his wife Michelle Obama today paid respect to 9/11 victims by visiting the North Memorial Pool in the footprint of the spot where the north tower of the World Trade Center stood on this 10th anniversary of the terrorist attack…. – ABC News, 9-11-11
    • Remembering those killed in the Sept. 11 attacks: With solemn gestures, Americans across the country mark the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks on the Pentagon in Virginia and the World Trade Center in New York…. – WaPo, 9-11-11
    • Americans mark 9/11 anniversary: The United States is commemorating the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks, with the country in a sombre mood and on high security alert. President Barack Obama attended a ceremony at the National September 11 Memorial at Ground Zero … – Financial Times, 9-11-11
    • America Remembers the September 11 Attacks: With solemn tributes, the United States is marking the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks that killed nearly 3000 people and launched the country into a decade of war. Events were held at the sites of each attack a decade ago…. – Voice of America, 9-11-11
    • 9/11 Remembered as Officials Monitor Threat: U.S. President Barack Obama joined former President George W. Bush at the World Trade Center in Manhattan to mark the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks that killed almost 3,000 people, reading a passage from the Bible at a ceremony attended by the families of the victims.
      Obama was later greeted with cheers and applause at a memorial in Pennsylvania, where he laid a wreath at the site near Shanksville where one of four hijacked airliners crashed. The New York ceremony, in the shadow of a new skyscraper that will be the tallest building in the U.S., took place while thousands of police officers worked overtime under a terror alert stemming from what Mayor Michael Bloomberg called a “credible but not corroborated” threat.
      The president was joined at Ground Zero by Bloomberg, former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and Governors Andrew Cuomo of New York and Christopher Christie of New Jersey. The men read letters, poems and religious passages as surviving family members recited the names of the victims in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania. Also honored were the six killed in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center…. – Bloomberg, 9-11-11
    • Ground Zero ceremony honours 9/11 victims: The names of the September 11 dead, some called out by children barely old enough to remember their fallen mothers and fathers, have echoed across Ground Zero in a haunting but hopeful tribute on the 10th anniversary of the terror attacks. … – Sydney Morning Herald, 9-11-11
    • In Shanksville, Thousands Gather to Honor Flight 93 Victims: The dedication of a memorial here on Saturday to the 40 passengers and crew members who died on United Airlines Flight 93 on Sept. 11, 2001, provided an opportunity for two former presidents to appeal for unity.
      Ten years after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, a special report on the decade’s costs and consequences, measured in thousands of lives, trillions of dollars and countless challenges to the human spirit.
      Neither George W. Bush nor Bill Clinton specifically mentioned the fractured state of relations in Washington. But their sharing of a stage and their comments here in a field where Flight 93 slammed into the ground stood in sharp contrast to the current discord…. – NYT, 9-10-11
    • United 93 families dedicate Sept. 11 memorial: Vice President Joe Biden joins Presidents Clinton and George W. Bush in Pennsylvania to honor the passengers and crew who fought back that day…. – LAT, 9-10-11
    • Bush, Clinton speak at memorial for Flight 93: Former Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton spoke solemnly Saturday at the unveiling of the memorial for victims of United Airlines Flight 93.
      “With their brave decision, they launched the first counteroffensive in the war on terror,” said Bush, who appeared emotional as he spoke near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, to families and friends of those who died in the crash.
      All 40 passengers and crew members were killed after confronting hijackers aboard the Boeing 757 on the morning of September 11, 2001.
      The hijacked plane, widely believed to be targeting the White House or the U.S. Capitol, crashed in a field outside Shanksville…. – CNN, 9-10-11
    • Flight 93 Honored in Pennsylvania: The 40 passengers and crew who fought back against their hijackers aboard Flight 93, which crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania on Sept. 11 and never reached its target, were honored Saturday for their heroism in a ceremony dedicating the first phase of a memorial at the newest U.S. national park.
      “They never made it because of the determination and valor of the passengers and crew of Flight 93, that plane crashed in this field, less than 20 minutes by air” from Washington, D.C., where it appeared to be headed, said Jon Jarvis, director of the … – WSJ, 9-10-11
    • Obama, Bush, Clinton Remember Sept. 11: Former US presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton are in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, for a ceremony dedicating a memorial to the victims of United Flight 93, which crashed into a field during the September 11th, 2001 attacks. … – Voice of America, 9-10-11
    • Obama tells NBC country is safer than it was 10 years ago: Reflecting on the 9/11 anniversary, President Obama told NBC News this morning that there is no doubt the United States is safer now that it was 10 years ago. He said this is a consequence of more effective homeland security and the US taking the fight…. – ABC News, 9-11-11
    • For 9/11 anniversary, Obama honors war dead at Arlington: President Barack Obama and first lady Michele Obama have visited Arlington National Cemetery where they paid tribute to members of the military killed in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
      One day before the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, the Obamas made a pilgrimage to Section 60 of the cemetery. The White House says that’s the burial ground for military personnel killed in those two wars. Those conflicts have claimed 6,213 military personnel…. – The Virginian-Pilot, 9-10-11
    • George W. Bush lays wreath at Pentagon: Former President George W. Bush has paid silent tribute to Sept. 11 victims in a wreath-laying at the Pentagon.
      Bush was joined by his wife, Laura, as he placed a wreath of white flowers by the 9/11 memorial stone embedded in the wall outside Corridor 4. That’s near where hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the building, killing 184 people.
      Also at Saturday’s brief ceremony were Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, former Pentagon chief Donald Rumsfeld and Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Adm. Michael Mullen…. – Politico, 9-10-11
    • September 11 commemorated by Obama in address: President Barack Obama commemorated Sunday’s 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks in his weekly address Saturday, urging the nation to come together and remember those who lost their lives. “We’re remembering the lives we lost—nearly 3000…. – Politico, 9-11-11
    • Obama pays tribute to 9/11 victims, vows America will be vigilant in weekly address: President Obama will take part in the memorial ceremony at the World Trade Center site Sunday. How concerned are you about a terrorist plot? President Obama used his weekly address to pay tribute to those who lost their lives on Sept 11…. – New York Daily News, 9-10-11
    • President Marks 9/11 Anniversary in Weekly Address: President Barack Obama used his weekly address today to mark the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks and pay tribute to the first responders, the nation’s military members, and those who lost their lives…. – Department of Defense, 9-10-11
    • Remembering the audacity of the twin towers: The soaring twin towers of the World Trade Center became an affirmation of the American value of dreaming big. To the engineer who designed them, their loss on 9/11 remains heartbreaking, but he’s found the resilience to keep dreaming…. – CS Monitor, 9-10-11
    • How 9/11 looked from the air-traffic control center that saw it coming: The air-traffic controllers in ‘Boston Center’ – the facility that oversaw Flight 11 – speak of what happened on 9/11, from the confusion of the first moments to the frustration that military jets could not get to New York City faster…. – CS Monitor, 9-10-11
    • Witness: With President Bush after the planes hit on Sept 11: Two Reuters reporters traveled with George W. Bush on September 11, 2001 on what began as a feel-good trip to Florida to promote education.
      Here are some of their memories of that day, and those that followed, as they watched Bush’s evolution from the leader of a country enjoying peace and prosperity to a wartime president…. – Reuters, 9-11-11

Obama’s 9/11 speech: national unity, personal loss: Searching for unity long vanished since the day terrorists astonished America, President Barack Obama will hail national resilience and remember hurting families when he gives the main speech of his Sept. 11 commemorations.
Obama will honor victims at each of the sites where nearly 3,000 people were killed in the 2001 attacks — first at ground zero in lower Manhattan, then in Shanksville, Pa. and at the Pentagon. Yet his only address to the nation will come at night, lasting about 15 minutes during an event at the Kennedy Center in Washington…. – AP, 9-9-11

HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION

    • Richard Norton Smith, Michael Beschloss: Historians Discuss What’s Changed, What Hasn’t After 9/11: From Americans’ collective outrage and response right following the 9/11 attacks to today’s political divisions, Jeffrey Brown speaks with historians Michael Beschloss and Richard Norton Smith about what has changed — and what hasn’t — in the United States since the 9/11 attacks…. – PBS Newshour, 9-121-11

RICHARD NORTON SMITH, George Mason University: Well, it’s interesting. We’ve been obsessed understandably with all that’s changed. A great deal has changed. We should begin by acknowledging that the greatest change obviously is for those who lost a loved one 10 years ago today or in the subsequent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Life will never be the same for them.
To the rest of us, there’s a certain amount of trauma. I think geography is a factor. I think if you live in New York, it’s much more real than if you’re in Terre Haute. Much of what has changed, like the proverbial iceberg, is beneath the surface. Government, we’re all thinking about this, the age of cutting back on government, the fact is government has been transformed, expanded by, I saw one estimate $600 billion has been spent over the last ten years on domestic security. New agencies have been created. Old agendas have been torn up.
On the other hand, think of what hasn’t changed. We had a brief moment of unity, of coming together, of common purpose, of collective outrage and a collective response. And that seems very much to be in the rear-view mirror….

Something I think we can take great pride in, and that is if you look back at earlier wars, World War I, World War II, along with the fervor, the patriotic ardor can come fear and civil liberties can be endangered. Famously, German-Americans came under attack during World War I. Sauerkraut was renamed liberty cabbage. Beethoven records were smashed in the streets of Cincinnati. There may be a direct connection between liberty cabbage and freedom fries, but I think there has been an enormous… um, we saw Ray’s piece earlier.

The danger, and I understand her concern, the fact is there will undoubtedly people who say, we’ve built the memorial. You know, we’ve dedicated this shrine, and as you said, there are other problems that are crowding for our attention. History is not static. And certainly not in as dynamic a society as this.
On the other hand, the issues surrounding 9/11, the questions arising out of 9/11, whether it’s civil liberties, for example, or the role of government in protecting us or projecting force around the world American foreign policy, all of those that have been filtered through 9/11 will be at the heart of this election, and so in that sense the conversation goes on.

Come back in 30 or 40 years and ask whether 9/11, in fact, was as some fear the beginning of a longer period of American decline or, in fact, a springboard to a new era of American greatness.

MICHAEL BESCHLOSS, presidential historian: That’s right, you know. And right after 9/11, people said and, you know, you sure wish it had come true, that we would never have the same kind of partisan antagonism we had before because 9/11 brought us all together as Americans. And this would be not only a different country and a different politics. Go back a couple months and take a look at that congressional fight over the debt crisis and you will see that 9/11 sadly did not change our politics in that way.

Well, I think to look at a positive one, it’s you know another thing we all talked about was living in America would never be the same again. That we would be afraid to go to shopping malls, to airports or to train stations or there would be a permanent sadness in some way. Those things have not turned out to be true. So anyone who thinks that there is something in our DNA that really does make this society a group of Americans I think has been proven right.

I think for instance we were talking earlier about our own memories on 9/11. I had just been to my younger son’s kindergarten. He was just about five years old, got in the car to go home and heard the first reports of the plane crashing into the World Trade Center. He was almost five. Changed our lives. He doesn’t remember it. He doesn’t quite get it.

Well, I think one way of looking at it is you know what Churchill said about there is nothing more exhilarating than being shot at without result? We were hit on 9/11. It sure was not without result, but this country really has come back. And so, if you remember where we were ten years ago and compare that to now, I think really we should, while being very sad about what happened and those that lost their lives and their families, there’s an element of this about which we should feel exhilarated.

That is going to depend on how secure the world we live in is during the next couple of decades. If this turned out to be essentially one event, we conquered it then it will be almost a singular event in American history. But if we are living, and I’m afraid this may be true, with the scourge of terrorism through the rest of our lifetimes and beyond, this will be something that essentially opened our eyes to a reality that is going to always be there.

“The people who died on 9/11 weren’t members of the armed forces. They were civilians. They were normal people. That places this in a category all its own as a terrible, terrible day in American history. We’ve had a lot of terrible days in our history, but people never signed up for that…. It’s very visceral for a lot of people. We feel it with our guts, not our heads.” — Jonathan Earle, an associate professor of history at Kansas University

9/11 Left Permanent Scars on the American Psyche A moment in history unlike any other, experts say: “I’m a historian, not a psychologist, but I can tell you that 9/11 has affected the American mentality significantly on several fronts. Of course there’s been a loss of our sense of overall security. And there’s been a loss of our sense of preeminence in the world.
But I think 9/11 has collectively thrown us back, psychologically and politically, into a Cold War mentality. It’s the national belief, not seen since the early to mid-1980s, that we are now, again, in an intractable global struggle with no end in sight. And with that perception of increased vulnerability, there has also been a rise, which many Americans wouldn’t even necessarily realize has taken place, in our willingness to trade off civil liberties and privacy for measures that we believe will make us safer.
It’s very hard to make forecasts about how all this will all play out long-term. But you could argue that, looking back in 50 years, we’ll actually see 9/11 as a major turning point: A permanent change in the American sense of self.” — Ethan Katz, an assistant professor of history at the University of Cincinnati — MSN, 9-11-11

  • Teaching 9/11: How educators are responding 10 years later: Attempts to teach 9/11 has forced educators largely to abandon textbooks in favor of more flexible and vibrant resources – from online art to in-class presentations by witnesses…. – CS Monitor, 9-9-11
  • Teachers tackle lessons of 9/11: The question of when an event becomes history depends on who you ask, said John Johnson, a history professor at the University of Northern Iowa.
    “The sort of old-fashioned view is you need a great deal of perspective, and you probably should give a significant event like 9/11 quite a few years.”
    “I feel different. I believe the more modern view is the morning newspaper or the latest tweet is history.”
    “I would rather have professional historians weighing in on recent events along with everybody else, rather than saying, ‘As a historian, I can’t say anything for 10 years.'”
    “Revisionism is a reality of history, and it is one of the beauties of history because every event will mean different things to different generations and be looked at from different angles.” WCF Courier, 9-11-11
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On This Day in History… September 11, 2001 Headlines: 10th Anniversary of the 9/11 Terror Attacks on the World Trade Center Twin Towers, Pentagon & Flight 93

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY:

Day in History

By Bonnie K. Goodman

Ms. Goodman is the Editor of History Musings. She has a BA in History & Art History & a Masters in Library and Information Studies from McGill University, and has done graduate work in history at Concordia University.

IN FOCUS: 10th ANNIVERSARY OF 9/11 TERROR ATTACKS

25 Most Powerful Photos

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY….

On this day in history… September 11, 2001… Terrorists hijack two passenger planes crashing them into New York’s World Trade Towers causing the collapse of the 110-story twin towers& death of 2,752 people.
Terrorists hijack a passenger plane and crash it into the Pentagon causing the death of 125 people.
Attempt by passengers and crew of United Airlines Flight 93 to retake control of their hijacked plane from terrorists causes plane to crash in Pennsylvania field killing all 64 people onboard.

September 11, 2001: The Pictures We Remember: One decade after 9/11, an unsettling number of images from Ground Zero and environs remain seared in our collective memory — unsurprising, perhaps, given the scope and scale of the destruction. But the fact that the deadliest, most visually arresting attacks occurred in New York City also meant that many of the world’s best photographers were, in effect, already on the scene when the terrorists struck. Here, to mark the tenth anniversary of 9/11, and in hopes of lending coherence to our shared, turbulent recollections, LIFE.com presents the 25 most stirring, visceral photographs from that day, featuring pictures from the likes of James Nachtwey, Joe Raedle, Spencer Platt, Mario Tama, and other celebrated photojournalists (and one intrepid amateur). These are the pictures we remember: wrenching, indelible photographs that tell the tale of a still-resonant late summer day that changed everything….. READ MORE

HEADLINES… NEW YORK TIMES SEPTEMBER 11, 2001

A DAY OF TERROR: COMMUNICATIONS; A Flood of Anxious Calls Clog Phone Lines:
Terrorist attacks in New York City and at Pentagon cause significant but temporary disruptions in telephone service in Northeast; major telecommunications carriers say problem was caused not by physical damage but by network overloads as extraordinary numbers of people tried to make calls in aftermath of incident; handful of television stations are knocked from airwaves after loss of transmitter atop World Trade Cente….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE ARABS; Condemnations From Arab Governments, but Widely Different Attitudes on the Street:
Arab governments condemn terrorist attacks in United States, but there is something of sense of inevitability in region whose leaders have warned for months that American support for Israel could have violent consequences; some Arabs say terrorists may well be American, but intense speculation focuses on Osama bin Laden or related organizations; all Palestinian groups deny any involvement; photo of celebration in Palestinian refugee camp near Beirut….

NYC; When the Unimaginable Happens, and It’s Right Outside Your Window:
Clyde Haberman comments on terrorists’ destruction of World Trade Center, observing that Americans have now experienced what Israelis have to face every day….

A DAY OF TERROR; Bush’s Remarks to the Nation on the Terrorist Attacks:
Transcript of address to nation by Pres Bush following terrorists attacks against US using hijacked jetliners….

A DAY OF TERROR: FINAL MOMENTS; Solicitor General Got 2 Calls From Wife on Doomed Plane:
Theodore B Olson, solicitor general of US, relates two cell phone conversations he had with his wife Barbara after she had been herded into back of hijacked airplane that eventually smashed into Pentagon; says pilot was apparently with Barbara Olson in back of plane; says she was trying to do something….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE HOPES; Survivors Are Found In the Rubble:
Desperate efforts to rescue those trapped under tons of twisted rubble around towers of World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, which collapsed after they were rammed by hijacked jetliners, described….

BASEBALL; Cashman Accounts for Players as Stadium Is Evacuated:
New York Yankees General Manager Brian Cashman starts accounting for members of team who live in Manhattan, networking with others, on morning of terrorist attack of World Trade Center and Pentagon; Yankee Stadium is evacuated and closed….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Some New Yorkers voice intense anger at terrorist attacks; some express express shock at failure to prevent such attacks in first place….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Broker working on 55th floor of 2 World Trade Center describes making it to street, where he finds piece of paper listing airliner’s itinerary and information about flight from Boston to Los Angeles….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Roundup of personal accounts of people during morning rush hour as they learned of catastrophe at World Trade Center….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Ferry boat crew member recalls how on day before German tourists were exclaiming how beautiful World Trade Center is, and now it’s gone….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE RESPONSE; Rescue Workers Rush In, And Many Do Not Return:
Attempts by New York City firefighters to rescue occupants of World Trade Center towers after they are rammed by hijacked jetliners described; instinctive efforts may have cost many their lives; 200 remain unaccounted after explosions collapse two main towers onto first wave of rescuers as they snake through stairwells and hallways; loss may be worst disaster in New York City Fire Department’s history….

A DAY OF TERROR: INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES; Officials Say They Saw No Signs of Increased Terrorist Activity:
Counterterrorism officials say that electronic eavesdropping intercepts obtained in hours after attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon indicate that terrorist operation was carried out by militant Islamic organization headed by Osama bin Laden; say they had no precise warning of attack, even as civilian flight controllers apparently tracked commercial aircraft involved in attacks as they veered far from their normal flight paths over northeastern US; acknowledge failure to detect any sign…

A DAY OF TERROR: VULNERABILITY; Physical and Psychological Paralysis of Nation:
Attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon shut down much of United States, compelling Americans to acknowledge that nameless terrorists can engage in multiple acts of war inside world’s most powerful country; overwhelming desire to do something to help victims sweeps much of country, creating crowds at blood centers; many Americans at first demand quick response against terrorists only to have their anger smothered in shadows that surround their enemy….

A DAY OF TERROR: HOSPITALS; Pictures of Medical Readiness, Waiting and Hoping for Survivors to Fill Their Wards:
Comment on scene at New York City hospitals in aftermath of wholesale carnage at World Trade Center; at hospitals throughout lower Manhattan, hundreds of doctors and nurses work as though all are part of one bit MASH unnit, tending to wounded at front lines of war….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE BACKGROUND; A Trend Toward Attacks That Emphasize Deaths:
American civilians at home and abroad have been targets of largest and most destructive terrorist attacks of last quarter-century, including Pan Am flight 103, bombing of federal office building in Oklahoma City and bombing of US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania; terrorism experts say coordinated attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon are culmination of 20-year trend toward assaults that aim to kill many people in technically complex operations, often orchestrated by assailants….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT; Driven Underground, Administration and Congressional Officials Stay on the Job:
Terrorist attacks in Washington and New York using hijacked planes force top officials and quarter-million federal workers out of offices on Capitol Hill and drive government underground to secure retreats for much of day; Congressional leaders are evacuated to undisclosed secure location outside Washington following attack on Pentagon; later return with pledge of bipartisan solidarity; Pres Bush returns to White House from Florida, following zig-zag route through two successive Air Force bases….

A DAY OF TERROR: TRANSPORTATION; With City Transit Shut Down, New Yorkers Take to Eerily Empty Streets:
Subway services is shut down across New york City after terrorist attack on World Trade Center; buses, ferries, taxis and gypsy vans are overtaxed, and New Yorkers make their way through eerily empty streets on foot; photos show second plane slamming into south towe….

A DAY OF TERROR: TERRORIST VIGIL; Security Alerts Go Into Effect Across Nation:
Hundreds of thousands of workers in government buildings and prominent office towers across US are sent home early, leaving downtown areas large and small in wake of terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon….

A DAY OF TERROR: TRANSPORTATION; Left to Fend for Themselves, a Nation of Travelers Scrambles for Transit Options:
United States goes into gridlock as terrorist attacks in New York and Washington lead to virtual shutdown of nation’s transportation system, including grounding of every airplane in country; bus and train companies shut down as well….

The War Against America; The National Defense:
Editorial says terrorist attacks on New York and Washington make it imperative for nation to determine how an open and democratic society can better defend itself against terrorist threat that conventional armies and weapons cannot defeat; says nation must get better and more timely intelligence, which is best defense against terrorism, and light but lethal weapons to attack terrorist compounds in remote locations; says US must make it clear to its allies that they can no longer stand on sidelines…

A DAY OF TERROR: SECURITY; Boston’s Airport Security Is Described as Standard:
Investigators begin trying to pinpoint how terrorists managed to penetrate two airliners that set off from Logan International Airport in Boston and ultimately slammed into World Trade Center in New York; Logan’s level of security is considered typical of large international airports….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE WORRIES; Families and Friends Hoping for Reassurance Find Frustration and Anguish:
Comment on anguish and frustration felt by families and friends waiting for news about loved ones who were at World Trade Center…

Many Sporting Events Called Off or Postponed:
Terrorist attacks at World Trade Center and Pentagon cause cancellation or postponement of numerous sports events in US….

A DAY OF TERROR: SECURITY; Fear’s Ripple: Closing Down, Tightening Up:
Attack on World Trade Center prompts scores of other buildings and institutions near and far to close their doors, send workers home and take measures to heighten security; photo of grounded airliners at Minneapolis-St Paul International Airpor…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VICTIMS; Talk Show Figure and TV Producer Among Lost Passenger:
Among airline passengers killed in terrorist attack on World Trade Center are Berry Berenson, the photographer and widow of actor Tony Perkins, Barbara B Olson, talk show personality and wife of Solicitor General Theodore B Olson, and David Angell, executive producer of television show Frasier….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE AFGHANS; Condemning Attacks, Taliban Says bin Laden Not Involved:
Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers condemn terrorist attacks on America and say Osama bin Laden, terrorist suspect they are sheltering, was not involved; contend they have insisted that bin Laden refrain from political and military activities while in Afghanistan, but American intelligence officials believe that bin Laden’s ties with Taliban are increasingly close and that his freedom of movement may have increased in recent months….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE WORLD’S REACTION; European Nations Stand With U.S., Ready to Respond:
World’s governments express solidarity with US as democracy under attack; European Union and NATO officials will meet to discuss common approach to battle against terrorism; European officials quietly discuss how to assist US if it engages in military action in retaliation; Pres Vladimir Putin of Russia expresses support for retaliation; comments by other European leaders note….

A DAY OF TERROR: CONGRESS; Horror Knows No Party As Lawmakers Huddle:
Dozens of members of Congress from both parties stand side by side on East Front of Capitol and declare they will stand united behind Pres Bush and not bow to attack on nation’s freedom; twilight tableau intended to help calm nation is capped with singing of God Bless America; Capitol and nearby Senate and House office buildings are evacuated earlier in day after assault on Pentagon….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE ECONOMY; A Tragedy Adds More Confusion To the Outlook For U.S. Economy:
World Trade Center tragedy cancels all forecasts about American economy, and whatever happens next in US, in turn, will inevitably affect global economic outlook; big issue, beyond huge initial costs of repairing damage caused by attack, centers on whether American consumers might stop spending until they know who is responsible for assaults and whether they might happen again

A DAY OF TERROR: IN THE CAPITAL; In the Day’s Attacks and Explosions, Official Washington Hears the Echoes of Earlier One:
Many of capital’s elder statesmen reach back to Pearl Harbor for apt comparison with terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon, and many of them regard Sept 11 attack as worse of the two; photo of members of Congress singing God Bless America….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE GOVERNMENT; Trying to Command an Emergency When the Emergency Command Center Is Gone:
New York City’s two-year-old Emergency Command Center, World Trade Center, is supposed to act as nerve center in any calamity but is rendered useless within minutes after hijacked jetliners crash into both towers of World Trade Center, causing their collapse; emergency officials say despite all planning that occurred after bombing in 1993, none of scenarios played out envisioned such a disaster, which had potential to kill all those responding….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE PSYCHOLOGY; Attackers Believed To Be Sane:
Experts on psychology of terrorism hold that attacks visited on New York and Washington were in all likelihood work of perfectly sane people, not madmen; studies suggest people willing to sacrifice their lives in such attack are almost never disturbed loners sometimes conjured by news media or by Hollywood films, but are almost always part of larger organization that has recruited them, tested their courage and trained them to carry out their missions with precision….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE TALK ONLINE; Web Offers Both News And Comfort:
Major news Web sites were quickly overloaded, and many links to not-so-major news sites stopped working as result shortly after terrorist attacks in New York City and at Pentagon using hijacked jetliners; sites served not only as sources of information but for conversations and forums about tragedy….

A DAY OF TERROR: VERBATIM; Bush Aides Speak Out On Attacks:
Excerpts from statements deploring terrorist attack on US using hijacked planes by Defense Sec Donald Rumsfeld, Transportation Sec Norman Mineta, Atty Gen John Ashcroft, House Speaker J Dennis Hastert and Senate majority leader Sen Tom Daschle….

Reaction From Around the World:
World reaction to terrorist attacks against World Trade Center and Pentagon, using hijacked jetliners, discussed….

Metro Matters; City Turns, Temporarily, Into a Small Town:
Crashing of jetliners by hijackers into World Trade Center in Manhattan is new degree of horror for New York City, which has had its share of traumatic experiences; reaction of residents demonstrates that city knows how to survive unspeakable trauma, turning itself into small town when visited by tragedy (Metro Matters)….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE ELECTIONS; Pataki Orders Postponement Of Primaries Across State:
Gov George E Pataki orders primary elections across New York State postponed indefinitely as city officials struggle to cope with terrorist attack on World Trade Center….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE AIRLINES; Scores of U.S.-Bound Planes Are Diverted to Canadian Airports:
Scores of planes from around world are redirected to Canadian airports as United States closes its airspace after terrorist attacks in New York and Washington; domestic Canadian airlines cancel all flights as airports prepare to accept diverted airplanes….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE MEASUREMENT; Columbia’s Seismographs Log Quake-Level Impacts:
Crash of two hijacked planes into World Trade Center in Manhattan and collapse of two towers create shock waves that register on sensitive instruments at Columbia University meant to monitor earthquakes….

BASEBALL; Mets Wait on Word: No makeup date has been determined for game between New York Mets and Pittsburgh Pirates canceled in wake of attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Former Sen George Mitchell, man with long experience trying to defuse terrorism in Northern Ireland and Middle East, finds himself waiting for subway train at 168th Street and Broadway, trying to get home; his flight to Washington from La Guardia was canceled because of World Trade Center disaster; he describes such a terrorist act as being ‘war itself’….

A DAY OF TERROR; Calling for Help Or to Give Help:
At least three businesses in trade center set up phone numbers for those looking for friends or relatives: Morgan Stanley, largest tenant with 3,500 employees, Empire Blue Cross and Aon Risk Services

U.S. ATTACKED; President Vows to Exact Punishment for ‘Evil’:
Hijackers ram two jetliners into World Trade Center towers in New York City, eventually toppling them in hellish storm of ash, glass, smoke and leaping victims; third plane crashes into Pentagon in Virginia, and fourth plunges to ground near Pittsburgh; military is put on highest state of alert; National Guard units are called out in Washington and New York; two aircraft carriers are dispatched to New York harbor; Pres Bush, who remained aloft on Air Force One shortly after attacks, later addressed…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE FEDERAL RESERVE; The Financial World Is Left Reeling by Attack:
US Government, concerned that terrorist attack could ignite economic and financial problems in US and around world, scrambles to reassure markets and keep global slowdown from becoming something worse; Federal Reserve issues statement saying it is operating as normal and is making credit available to banks that might need it; banks report no major problems, and financial markets are closed, masking what could be considerable difficulties whenever they reopen; markets will remain closed Sept 12…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE MILITARY; U.S. Armed Forces Are Ordered on Highest State of Alert to Protect and Reassure:
Jet fighters fly patrols over New York and Washington, and warships steam along Atlantic and Pacific coasts in case they are needed to protect major cities and landmarks from another wave of suicide attacks; military officials appear before reporters in effort to assure public that damage to Pentagon has not diminished military’s ability to carry out its mission; say search for survivors at Pentagon will take priority over retaliation; every member of US armed forces and every installation….

THE PRESIDENT; A Somber Bush Says Terrorism Cannot Prevail:
Pres Bush vows to retaliate against those responsible for terrorist attacks on New York and Washington; addresses nation from Oval Office; declares he will make no distinction between terrorists who hijacked passenger jetliners and crashed them into World Trade Center and Pentagon and those who harbor them; says terrorist acts cannot touch foundation of America; says America saw evil and very worst of human nature….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE OPERATION; Terrorism Carefully Synchronized and Devastatingly Effective:
Simultaneous highjacking of four airliners and successful use of three of them as flying bombs against World Trade Center and Pentagon represent ingenious marriage of old-school hijacking and ever-more-familiar suicide bomb; terrorists managed to board flights undetected, overcome flight attendants, penetrate cockpits and put one of their own in control of aircraft; synchronization of attacks in New York and Washington noted….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE REACTION; Absorbing a Blow to the Heart of America’s Financial Center:
Many corporations, reeling from attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon, suspend operations, closing offices, scrambling plans and struggling to maintain contact with workers; business on Wall Street and in much of downtown New York comes to halt, and offices in major cities are evacuated; Morgan Stanley employs some 3,500 people in World Trade Center, many at its individual-investor operations….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Passengers on US Airways flight circling over Westchester County (NY), waiting to land at La Guardia Airport, react to captain informing them they will be unable to land at La Guardia because an American Airlines Boeing 767 had crashed into World Trade Center…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
John L Tishman, chmn of Tishman Realty and Construction Company, which served as construction manager of World Trade Center three decades ago, joins other Tishman executives in watching disaster unfold at World Trade Center; as South Tower crumbles, Tishman is speechless, and later, wordlessly, goes home….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
New Jersey residents view attack on World Trade Center as speechless and helpless spectators….

A DAY OF TERROR: AN ASSESSMENT; When an Open Society Is Wielded as a Weapon Against Itself:
News analysis of terrorist attacks against US; by hijacking civilian airliners and ramming them into World Trade Center and Pentagon, ‘new kamikazes’ of 21st century used very accessibility of an open society as weapon against it; lesson seems to be that even superior military power is vulnerable and may have inadequate defense against terrorism….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE TIES; In U.S., Echoes of Rift Of Muslims and Jews:
Muslims and Arab-Americans across US brace for repercussions from terrorist attacks on New York and Washington even though there is no definitive information yet about who was behind them; attack resonates particularly among Muslims and Jews, whose kin in Middle East are locked in bitter battle; Muslims struggle to assert their identities as loyal American citizens and to say their religion does not approve of violence against innocents; Jews, meanwhile, cannot help linking victimization of Ameican….

A DAY OF TERROR: WASHINGTON; Stunned Tourists, Gridlocked Streets, Fleeing and Fear: White House and Old Executive Building are frantically evacated as government-wide security alert spreads across Washington in wake of terrorist attack on Pentagon; bureaucrats and other workers run screaming down Pennsylvania Avenue; traffic gridlock grips city; city eventually empties to await return of Pres Bush, and eerie mood prevails as armored vehicles and military policemen take posts at key intersections downtown….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Cab driver who emigrated from Egypt nine years ago responds to terrorist attack by expressing his love for America, observing that it is country that tries to help everybody….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Woman working on 82nd floor of World Trade Center, who had been in building during 1993 explosion, describes how after making it down staircase to street, she experienced horror of seeing mangled and dismembered bodies….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Harriet Cordero, who repairs office equipment, was supposed to go to World Trade Center at 9 am to repair postal machine for company there, but she decided to stop first to make another service call at an office building on Broadway–decision that most likely saved her life….

A DAY OF TERROR; Some Embassies to Stay Closed Today:
At least 12 American embassies to remain closed on Sept 12 in wake of terrorist attacks at home….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE VOICES; Personal Accounts of a Morning Rush That Became the Unthinkable:
Reaction of passengers on train heading to Pennsylvania Station upon seeing World Trade Center towers in flames….

Living Up to ‘Bravest’ and ‘Finest’ Slogans:
Photo of people standing on window ledges of World Trade Center’s north tower as it burns; photos of firefighters exhausted from their labors and mourning lost colleagues….

U.S. ATTACKED; HIJACKED JETS DESTROY TWIN TOWERS AND HIT PENTAGON IN DAY OF TERROR:
Article describes scenes of horror in Lower Manhattan after World Trade Center towers were rammed by two hijacked jetliners….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE REACTION; A Tough City Is Swept by Anger, Despair and Helplessness:
Article describes mood in Manhattan following crashing of two hijacked jetliners into towers of World Trade Center; New Yorkers become united; are emotional and easily moved to sudden tears as well as acts of kindnesses….

A DAY OF TERROR: NEWS ANALYSIS; Awaiting the Aftershocks:
News analysis of terrorist attacks on World Trade Center towers in New York City and on Pentagon with hijacked jetliners; devastating and astonishingly well-coordinated attacks plunge nation into warlike struggle against enemy that will be hard to identify and certainly hard to punish with precision; sense of security and self-confidence that Americans take as birthright suffers grievous blow, from which recovery will be slow….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE BUILDINGS; Towers Believed to Be Safe Proved Vulnerable to an Intense Jet Fuel Fire, Experts Say:
Experts in skyscraper design say cause of collapse of twin towers of World Trade Center in Manhattan following crash by hijacked jetliners was most likely intense fire fed by thousands of gallons of jet fuel; high temperatures of perhaps 1,000 to 2,000 degrees probably weakened steel supports, causing external walls to buckle and floors above to fall straight down–leading to catastrophic failures of rest of buildings….

A DAY OF TERROR: ATTACK ON MILITARY; A Hijacked Boeing 757 Slams Into the Pentagon, Halting the Government:
Hijackers slam Boeing 757 jetliner into Pentagon, triggering thunderous explosion and fierce fires at defense complex and killing and wounding unknown number of people; surprise assault, first in history of 58-year-old building, is within hour of attack on World Trade Center towers in New York City; American Airlines Boeing 757 jetliner with 58 passengers and six crew members is used in attack; fuel-laden plane, diverted while on Washington-Los Angeles flight, slams into west wall of five-sided…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE MARKETS; Stocks Tumble Abroad; Exchanges in New York Never Opened for the Day:
Financial markets plunge in Europe and Latin America before trading is halted after attacks that destroy World Trade Center and damage Pentagon; American markets do not open and will remain closed Sept 12; it will be first time that news has kept New York Stock Exchange closed for two full days since Great Depression; stocks fall 4.6 percent in Spain and 8.5 percent in Germany; price of Brent crude oil for November delivery jumps to $28.87 per barrel, up $1.50; price of gold at afternoon fixing…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE MEDIA; As an Attack Unfolds, A Struggle to Provide Vivid Images to Homes:
Article appraises news coverage of terrorist attacks against World Trade Center and Pentagon with hijacked jetliners….

BASEBALL; Selig, in a Sense of Mourning, Cancels Baseball Games:
Major League Baseball Comr Bud Selig calls off full schedule of 15 games and says he will make subsequent decisions on future games in wake of terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon; it is third time in history that warlike act prompted postponement of major league games; Selig comment….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE MILITANT; America the Vulnerable Meets a Ruthless Enemy:
Terrorist attacks against World Trade Center and against Pentagon, using hijacked airliners and possibly killing thousands, underscores vulnerability of world’s only superpower that has been concern of American defense experts, but has been studied and celebrated by many of terrorist groups that are on list of suspects believed responsible for attacks…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE RIVERS; A Battered Retreat On Bridges To the East:
Survivors of disaster at World Trade Center make exodus over East River bridges to get out of lower Manhattan; they walk in bewilderment and fear, many covered with ash; the strong try to assist the weak; photo of scene on Queensboro Bridge….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE AIRLINES; For the First Time, the Nation’s Entire Airspace Is Shut Down:
Federal Aviation Administration shuts down airspace over United States to commercial traffic minutes after two commercial jets slam into World Trade Center, first time government has taken such drastic step; all planes on ground are barred from taking off, and those in air are given option of continuing to their intended destinations or diverting to nearest airport; most airlines order their plans to land as soon as possible, placing thousands of passengers far away from where they intended to …

A DAY OF TERROR: THE SCHOOLS; Parents Converge to Take Students Home, and Officials Seek to Keep Safe Those Who Remain:
Parents converge on schools to take their children home, or phone their children to tell them that their mothers or fathers are all right; school officials seek to keep safe those children who remain….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE THREAT; Bush Aides Say Attacks Don’t Recast Shield Debate:
Bush administration aides say terrorist attacks against US using hijacked jetliners should not recast debate over usefulness of proposed missile defense system since shield, which is centerpiece of administration’s national security planning, even though proposed shield could not prevent kind of assaults that occurred on World Trade Center and Pentagon….

WILLIAM SAFIRE: Essay; New Day Of Infamy:
William Safire Op-Ed column holds that US must pulverize bases and camps of groups responsible for attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon once their identities are reasonably ascertained; says piloting expertise needed to slam airliners into targets suggests connection with Egyptair crash of 1999; says US intelligence agencies will need a shakeup; praises New York State Governor George E Pataki and Mayor Rudolph W Giuliani for sticking to their posts and reassuring citizens, and says Pres Bush…

A DAY OF TERROR: THE AIRPORTS; Security Long a Concern At United States Airports:
Investigators say terrorists who hijacked four airplanes from three airports on Sept 11 exploited inadequacies in security that they have been warning about for more than a decade….

The War Against America; An Unfathomable Attack:
Editorial says unfathomable terrorist attack on World Trade Center and Pentagon is one of those moments in which history splits and we define the world as ‘before’ and ‘after’; says that if four planes can be taken over simultaneously by suicidal hijackers, then Americans can never be quite sure again that any bad intention can be thwarted, no matter how irrational or loathsome; says it will be hard to match desire for retribution with need for certainty and with knowledge that lives of civilians….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE ISRAELIS; Spilled Blood Is Seen as Bond That Draws 2 Nations Closer:
Israeli officials and most Palestinian leaders, including Yasir Arafat, condemn terrorist attack on United States, but Israelis also take cold comfort in concluding that Americans will now share more of their fears, while some Palestinians rejoice at same thought; big crowds of Palestinians march in celebration in Nablus on West Bank….

A DAY OF TERROR: CRITIC’S NOTEBOOK; Live Images Make Viewers Witnesses to Horror:
Critic’s Notebook column appraises television coverage of collapse of World Trade Center towers after terrorists attacked them with hijacked jetliners….

A DAY OF TERROR: THE WARNINGS; Years of Unheeded Alarms:
Terrorist attacks against US using hijacked airliners come after years of debate among experts, who have warned repeatedly of country’s vulnerability to such attacks; alarms have generally gone unheeded….

A DAY OF TERROR: SCHEDULES; Disruptions and Closings Are Expected to Continue: Lower Manhattan is expected to remain cut off from rest of city on Sept 12, and schools and stock exchanges will be closed; subways, streets and bridges leading to Lower Manhattan are also expected to remain closed; other disruptions related to destruction of World Trade Center noted…..

A DAY OF TERROR: DISASTER PLANNING; Attacks Halt Meeting: Terrorst assaults in New York and Washington, DC, halt annual meeting, Big Sky, Mont, of officials of Federal Emergency Management Agency where one of topics was how to prepare for terrorist attacks….

FROM THE WHITE HOUSE ARCHIVES

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